Test 1 Review Questions Flashcards Preview

Bio 141 > Test 1 Review Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 Review Questions Deck (44):
0

What components make up an atom?

nucleus, protons, neutrons, electrons

1

what is an element

a substance that cannot be converted to simpler substance by ordinary chemical reactions

2

In what way do atoms differ from one another?

They have a different number of protons

3

How do protons and electrons relate to the chemical properties of atoms and molecules?

The protons determine what the atom is
it has the same number of electrons as it does protons

4

What is an ion?

an electrically charged particle

5

Why do ions form?

form when an atom gains or loses one or more elctrons

6

What happens when ions dissolve in water?

Their bonds are broken

7

What are the four categories of biologically important molecules?

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Polymers
Macromolecules

8

What elements are important for each category?

Carbohydrates - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Lipids - carbon and hydrogen

9

What are the basic functions for each category

Carbohydrates - store energy in chemical bonds
Lipids - long term energy storage
Polymers - single units, most biologically important molecules
Macromolecules - all ⬆️

10

What are some reasons simple molecules are formed into polymers

It makes them more complex

11

How are triglycerides composed

composed of 3 fatty acids

12

How are triglycerides and phospholipds similar and different

They both have fatty acids

Tri have three

Phospholipids have a phosphate group instead of glycerol

13

What does it mean to say glucose contains energy?

Contains bonds that can be broken to create energy

14

How is energy Released?

exergonic reactions

15

Three components of a nucleotode

phosphate
5-C sugar
Base

16

How are nucleotides joined together in a polymer

condensation reaction

17

Which nucleotide polymer is double stranded

DNA

18

Which nucleotides are complemetary
Why

A-T/U
G-C
A and G are Purines
and T, C and U are Pyrimidines

19

What are the three types of RNA

mRNA (messenger)
tRNA (transfer)
rRNA (ribosomal)

20

What are the components of all amino acids

Amino group
Carboxyl group
R side chain
Hydrogen
Carbon

21

Why is the similarity of amino acids important for the formation of peptide linkages

The amino acid and the Carboxyl group react together

22

What kind of bonds holds together protein structures?

Primary- peptide bonds
Secondary and tertiary - Hydrogen bonds

23

Why is protein shape so important?

Shape affects function

24

What effects do enzymes have on the energy barrier and reaction rate?

Enzymes make things happen faster
It lowers the energy barrier

25

What does it mean to denature a protein?

change it's shape
it will no longer work

26

What factors cause a protein to denature?

Heat, alterations in concentration of H+ and high concentrations of polar substances

27

How do feedback loops allow cells to control their chemical processes?

They tell the cell if it needs more and should continue to make what it's making or if it should stop

28

How do prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ?

Prokaryotes - no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotes- have a nucleus

29

What are the three domains of life?

Archea
Bacteria
Eukarya

30

What domain contains all multicellular life?

Eukaryotes

31

What does it mean for organelles to be membrane bound? How does it contribute to cell organization

It keeps things separate

32

What molecule forms the basis for biological membranes?

Phospholipids

33

What types of molecules are embedded in a membrane or attached to membranes

Carbohydrates
Proteins

34

What biological process depend on their membranes for their function and why?

Mitochondrion and chloroplast

35

How do membranes maintain differences between the space inside the membrane and the space outside?

the are selectively permeable

36

How can molecules cross membranes?

if the match the protein and and move through it

37

What does it mean to be gradient?

difference across the membrane

38

How do gradients relate to diffusion, osmosis, and active and passive transport

molecules move to where the concentration is lower to even it out.

39

What is meant by signal transduction pathway?

short and long term resononses

40

What starts the pathway?

a signal molecule connects with the recptor

41

What are the steps in the pathway

involves enzymes and proteins

42

What ends the pathway?

a cellular response

43

How do the steps along the way pass on the signal?

phosphorylation transmits the signal to thenext enzyme
kinase phophorylates the other molecules