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Flashcards in bio chap 7 Deck (55):
1

the chemical bonds of carbohydrates and lipids have high potential energy because

their electrons are far away from the nuclei of the atoms

2

FALSE things about aerobic respiration

-aerobic respiration requires oxygen at every stage
-aerobic resp is carried out by all Prokaryote, Eukaryotes
-Aerobic resp is a 3-step process, with oxidative phoshporylation the last stage
-carbon dioxide is produced at every stage of aerobic respiration

3

The electron transport chain is part of

oxidative phosphorylation

4

The inputs to glycolysis DO NOT INCLUDE
Pi
Glucose
NAD+
ADP
NADH

NADH

5

oxidation is the gain of electrons

FALSE; reduction is the gain

6

After acetyl-CoA synthesi, the chemical energy of how many carbons of the original glucose molecule will be converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP in the remaining steps of aerobic respiration?

4

7

What statement is true regarding acetyl-CoA syntheis

acetyl-CoA synthesis forms the same number of NADH (per glucose molecule) as glucose

8

In a plant cell, all stages of cellular respiration are carried out in the cytoplasm TRUE/FALSE

FALSE, they occur in the mitochondrion

9

Acetyl-CoA synthesis is remarkably similiar to glycolysis in that when 1 molecule of pyruvate enters into the mitochondrion, two molecules of acetyl-CoA are formed

FALSE, i think only 1 molecule is formed

10

Phosphorylating glucose during phase 1 of glycolysis:

destabilizes the glucose molecule so that it can be broken down in step 2

11

How did the earliest organisms on Earth most likely produce ATP?

Glycolysis

12

The 1st phase of glycolysis requires the input of two ATP molecules. It is therefore:::

Endergonic

13

In the first three stages of cellular respiration, the chemical energy in glucose is transferred to:

ATP, and electron carriers

14

The second phase of glycolysis

cleaves a phophorylated sugar molecule and rearranges the products

15

During acetyl-CoA synthesis, pyruvate is broken down into CO2 and an acetyl group. The CO2 is:

less energetic than the acetyl group

16

In cellular respiration, oxygen:

gains electrons and is an oxidizing agent

17

What is true of the following statements is true regarding the Equation C6H12O6

The oxygen atoms in both CO2 and H20 are electronegative, and glucose could be considered a reducing agent

18

The majority of ATP produced during acetyl-CoA synthesis is the result of substrate level phosphorylation

FALSE:::substrate level ATP=4
Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP= 28

19

In what organelle is acetyl-CoA synthesis carried out in a cell

mitochondrion

20

During acetyl-CoA, pyruvate;

oxidized, loses electrons, probably to the electron chain

21

acetyl-CoA synthesis is an important step in cellular respiration because

it links glycolysis with aerobic respiration

22

Which of the following statements is true regarding a reducing agent

oxidation-reducing agent
reduction---oxidizing agent
(it loses electrons)

23

Imagine that a eukaryotic cell carries a mutation impairing its ability to phosphorylate glucose during glycolysis. What is a likely result of this mutation

glucose could move out of the cell, slowing cellular respiration

24

The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex plays a role in which of the following (a) formation of NADH
(b)oxidation of pyruvate
(c)formation of acetyl-CoA
(d)formation of CO2

All options are correct

25

In eukaryotes, acetyl-CoA synthesis takes place in the:

mitochondrial matrix

26

In cellular respiration, glucose is.... to CO2 and oxygen is....to water

oxidized, reduced

27

Imagine that you notice rust has formed on the frame of your bicycle . How would this have happened

The iron in your bicycle frame was oxidized and lost electrons

28

Like gylcolysis, acetyl-CoA synthesis produces both pyruvate and acetyl-CoA. These two products feed directly into the citric cycle and are the reactants for this process

FALSE

29

What is excess glucose stored as in animals

glycogen

30

How is excess glucose stored in plants

starch

31

4 steps of cellular respiration

1) glycolysis
2) pyruvate oxidation + acetyl-CoA synthesis
3) citric acid cycle
4)oxidative phosphorylation

32

Chemical bonds of sugar molecules like glucose have high potential energy because the electrons that are shared by neighboring atoms are on average FAR FROM THE NUCLEUS

.

33

gycolysis

series of 10rx
*for each molecule of glucose consumed during gylcolysis, a net gain of
2 molecules of ATP
2 molecules of NADH

34

When a single pyruvate molecule is converted to acetyl-CoA, the other products of the reaction are:

NADH, CO2

35

Which of the following best describe how ATP synthase converts the potential energy of the proton gradient to the chemical energy of ATP

kinetic energy from the flow of protons is converted to the kinetic energy of rotation of the F0 subunit: this is transferred to the F1 subunit and used to catalyze ATP synthesis

36

A single molecule of glucose requires "turns" through the citric acid cycle for its chemical energy to be completely harvested

2

37

Phosphorylating glucose during phase 1 of glycolysis

destabilizing the glucose molecule so that it can be broken down in stage 2

38

ATP is NOT generated directly in the citric acid cycle instead, an intermediate is first generated by substrate level phosphorylation. The intermediate is:

GTP

39

During the citric acid cycle, the production of CO2 is a(n) reaction coupled to the production of

oxidation, NADH

40

Coenzyme Q and cytochrome C:

transfer high-energy electrons between protein complexes of the electron transport chain

41

excess glucose is stored in large branched molecules of

glycogen in animals, and starch in plants

42

The citric acid cycle takes place in the:

mitchondrial matrix

43

During the citric acid cycle:

ATP is synthesized by substrate level phosphorylation

44

Lactic acid and ethanol fermentation differ in that:

ethanol fermentation produces CO2, but lactic acid fermentation does not

45

The...........forms of the electron carriers NAD+/NADH and FADH/FADH2 have high potential energy

reduced

46

In gylcolysis, ATP is synthesized via:

substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation

47

Which of the following is NOT one of the net Final products of glycolysis

two molecules of pyruvate

48

We can tell from their structure that fatty acids are a good source of energy because....

the large number of carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds they contain

49

After acetyl-CoA synthesis, the chemical energy of how many carbons of the original glucose molecule will be converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP in the remaining steps of aerobic respiration

4

50

During a long bout of sustained exercise, in which order will your body's energy stores/sources be used

ATP in muscle, glycogen stored in muscle, glycogen stored in liver, and fatty acids

51

Due to the pumping action of the electron transport chain, protons have a high concentration in the........ and a low concentration in the......

intermediate space, mitochondrial matrix

52

The majority of energy generated in the citric acid cycle is in the form of

energy electrons donated to NAD+, and FADH

53

Which of the following correctly characterizes the F1 subunit of ATP synthase

H is the catalytic unit that synthesizes ATP

54

The inputs do not include

NADH

55

the enzyme phosphofructokinase - 1 (pfk-1) is thought of as a metablic (valve) that regulates the rate of glycolysis. Which of the following correctly identitifies its allosteric activators and inhibitors and their actions

ADP====Activator Citrate====inhibitor