bio chap 8 Flashcards Preview

Biology 1 > bio chap 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in bio chap 8 Deck (55):
1

Recall that cyanobacteria may have developed as a result of horizontal gene transfer: a bacterium carrying the genetic information for one photosystem received (from another bacterium) the genetic information for a second, distinct photosystem. What might be possible mechanisms of action for horizontal gene transfer?

***Bacteria could take up genetic information (released from dead bacteria) from their surroundings.
****Bacteria may exchange genetic information through the development of cytoplasmic connections.
***** Bacteria may become infected by a virus that carries genetic information taken from previously infected bacteria.
$$$all options are correct

2

Which of the following statements is true regarding the earliest photosynthetic organisms on earth

The organisms likely used inorganic molecules (H2S) as electron donors

3

The Z scheme refers to

the energy inputs associated with electron transport

4

The regeneration of RuBP typically limits the rate of photosynthesis under low light intensities. This is because

RuBP regeneration requires ATP...

5

All photosynthetically competent cells contain

a plasma membrane

6

Organisms with only one photosystem cannot

produce O2

7

Chemicals called un-couplers can make membranes permeable to small molecules and ions. What affect might un-couplers have on photosynthesis

Decreased ATP production because the proton-gradient would decrease

8

The evolution of photosynthesis involved...

horizontal gene transfer and endosymbiosis

9

How many mol NADH are required for 12 mol RuBP to be carboxylated by rubisco

not 10,12,24,36

10

Which of the following is at the highest energy level
(1) blue light
(2) green light
(3) red light

blue light

11

CO2 reduction requires

ATP and NADPH

12

For every 6 CO2 molecules fixed, how many triose phosphates are exported from the chloroplast

2

13

In plants and algae, which of the following is a by-product of photosynthesis

O2

14

Which of the following statements is true regarding the Calvin Cycle? (4 false things)

The calvin cycle is considered a "dark" rx, because it is not directly related to photosynthesis
**the calvin cycle is a carefully regulated process because excess starch can be toxic to plant cells
***the calvin cycle uses a rare (and this "rate-limiting")enzyme called rubisco
***the calvin cycle produces high energy triose phosphate only through the action of rubisco

15

During photosynthesis in plants and algae, is oxidized and is reduced

H20 ; CO2

16

PS II and PS I differ in....

H+ production, and electron donors and acceptors

17

During their experiments with chlorella, Calvin and Benson found no free glucose. Why do you think this is?

**glucose is stored as starch

18

Eukaryotes conduct all of the photosynthesis that occurs in the ocean. TRUE/FALSE

FALSE

19

Prokaryotes account for roughly half of terrestrial photosynthesis

FALSE

20

In plants and algae, is the source of the electrons needed for photosynthesis

H20

21

PS I is a than PSII

weaker oxidant and a stronger reductant

22

cyclic electron transport enhances ATP production because....

electrons are transferred from ferradoxin to plastoquinone

23

Assuming that all is working properly, which of the following is at a higher energy level

an excited-state antennae chlorophyll

24

From its ground state, PS II can

absorb light energy

25

In addition to chlorophylls, light-harvesting antennae include other pigments. What is the benefit of these additional pigments?

Narrower range of wavelength reflection

26

Many photosynthetic prokaryotes are capable of cyclic electron transport only. It is likely that such organisms can but not .

Produce ATP, reduce CO2

27

How does the metabolism occuring in chloroplast differ from that of mitochondria

*different electron acceptors and sources

28

Antennae accompany rx centers promoting

energy transfer

29

collectively, most photosynthesis carried out in the ocean is performed by prokaryotes and not eukaryotes

FALSE

30

A researcher is carrying out an experiment where she labels a protein with a fluorescent tag (so she can visualize its location in a cell), and introduces this tagged protein into the lumen of a single thylakoid. She observes her treated cells periodically, and notices that the labeled protein can move between grana, but it never observed in the stroma. What can she deduce

the protein likely travels through a common lumen shared by thylakoid membranes and grana, and cannot easily diffuse through the thylakoid membrane

31

The calvin cycle and light-harvesting reactions are separated in...

space

32

All photosynthetically competent cells contain ____________.

a plasma membrane

33

During photorespiration, the phosphoglycolate (PGO) produced by RuBP oxygenation is eventually converted to PGA; 75% of the carbon in PGO is recovered. How many molecules of PGO are required to generate two molecules of PGA through this route?

four

34

In the lab you isolate a Chlorella mutant that is unable to switch xanthophyll pigments into the inactive, non–heat-dissipating form. If you released that mutant into a small pond shaded by trees, would the mutation spread, and why

No, light absorbed by xanthophylls is not used to make ATP or NADPH

35

Assuming that all is working properly, which of the following is at a higher energy level?

An excited-state antenna chlorophyll

36

Antennae accompany reaction centers, promoting ____________.

electron transfer

37

For every six CO2 molecules fixed, how many triose phosphates are exported from the chloroplast?

2

38

In the Calvin cycle, ATP is required to ____________

phosphorylate 3-PGA

39

In plants and algae, which of the following is a by-product of photosynthesis?

O2

40

NADPH production requires ____________.

light and electrons

41

Many photosynthetic prokaryotes are capable of cyclic electron transport only. It is likely that such organisms can ____________ but not ____________.

produce ATP; reduce CO2

42

Over evolutionary time, photosynthesis has effectively poisoned itself by producing an oxygenic atmosphere because ____________.

rubisco is an oxygenase and O2 is a strong oxidant

43

Electrons move between PSII and PSI via ____________.


cytochrome b6f

44

Low temperatures slow the activity of rubisco but enhance its ability to select CO2 over O2. Low temperatures thus ____________.

increase the production of reactive oxygen species

45

True or false: The products of the Calvin cycle are 3-carbon sugars

true

46

Which of the following is needed directly to produce both triose phosphates and RuBP?

ATP

47


CO2 reduction requires ____________

ATP and NADPH

48

ATP production requires ____________.

light, electrons, and protons

49

True or false: Eukaryotes conduct all of the photosynthesis that occurs in the ocean

false

50

Which of the following compounds is consumed by carboxylation?

RuBP

51

The occurrence of photorespiration ____________ CO2 and ____________ ATP.

produces; consumes

52

The evolution of photosynthesis involved ____________.

horizontal gene transfer and endosymbiosis

53

The Calvin cycle includes 15 enzymes, most of which are involved in ____________.

RuBP regeneration

54

Over evolutionary time, photosynthesis has effectively poisoned itself by producing an oxygenic atmosphere because ____________.

rubisco is an oxygenase and O2 is a strong oxidant

55

The regeneration of RuBP typically limits the rate of photosynthesis under low light intensities. This is because ____________.

RuBP regeneration requires ATP