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Flashcards in Biology Chapter 1 Deck (50):
1

1st Law of Thermodynamics

states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed: it can only be transformed from one form into another. Total energy is constant, but the form of that energy can change

2

Entropy

Physicists quantify the amount of disorder in a system

3

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

states that the degree of disorder in the universe tends to increase.

4

Cell

simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life

5

Nucleic Acids

store and transmit information needed for growth, function, and reproduction. {1st essential feature}

6

Proteins

structural and functional molecules that do the work of the cell

7

RNA

a copy that proteins make of DNA's info, it is a closely related molecule (ribonucleic acid)

8

Transcription

synthesis of RNA from a DNA template

9

Translation

converts information stored in the language of nucleic acids to information in the language of proteins

10

central dogma

the basic flow of information in a cell, it constitutes a fundamental principle in Biology

11

Gene

specific stretches or segments of DNA according to the proteins that they encode

12

Plasma Membrane

2nd essential feature, separates the living material within the cell from the non living environment around it. (controls movement into and out of the cell)

13

Nucleus

houses the cells DNA

14

cytoplasm

everything but the nucleus,

15

Prokaryotes

cells without a nucleus

16

Eukaryotes

cells with a nucleus

17

Bacteria

Prokaryote, lack a nucleus

18

Archaea

Prokaryote, lack a nucleus (single celled flourish in hostile conditions)

19

Eukarya

Eukaryote

20

ATP

chemical form energy is stored in. (adenosine triphosphate)

21

Metabolism

chemical rx that cells use to convert energy from one form to another and to build and break down molecules

22

Mutation

errors in DNA can, and do, occur during the process of replication, and environmental insults can damage DNA.

23

3 Essential features of cells

-the capacity to store and transmit information
-a membrane that selectively controls movement in and out
-ability to harness energy from the environment

24

Evolution

change over time

25

Natural selection

variation with a population of organisms, and when that variation can be inherited, the variants best suited for growth and reproduction in a given environment will contribute disproportionately to the next generation

26

Environmental Variation

variation among individuals is sometimes due to differences in the environment

27

genetic variation

the other main cause of variation among individuals is differences in the genes that are transmitted from parents to their offspring

28

All cells require an archive of information.
A membrane to maintain the inside of the cell different from the outside.
The ability to harness energy from the environment

123

29

Which one of the following statements about hypotheses is incorrect?

Hypotheses that provide reasonable explanations do not need to be tested.

30

In Pasteur's experiment showing that living organisms arise from other living organisms, which one of the following statements most accurately describes Pasteur's hypothesis?

If microbes arise from non-living matter, they should appear spontaneously in sterile broth.

31

Given the high degree of "order" living organisms demonstrate, the second law of thermodynamics can never be applied to life.

false

32

Which one of the following statements about the laws of thermodynamics is incorrect?

*Highly organized living organisms like animal cells are exceptions to the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
*The addition of energy increases the disorder of a system.
*In order to comply with the First Law of Thermodynamics, the conversion of energy from one form to another in biological reactions is 100% efficient.

33

Imagine that a researcher claimed to have created a genetically modified plant that produces twice as much energy as it harnesses from its environment. How is this possible?

This is not possible because such a plant would violate the second law of thermodynamics.

34

As you will learn in later chapters (Chapter 25), a trophic pyramid depicts the transfer of energy between different organisms (i.e., plants, herbivores, and carnivores). Based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, which of the following is likely true of a trophic pyramid?

Plants harness more energy from the sun compared to an herbivore eating plants, and an herbivore gains more energy from eating plants compared to a carnivore eating meat.

35

The language of nucleic acids is converted to the language of amino acids during the process known as _______________.

translation

36

You have discovered a new species of prokaryote in a deepsea thermal vent. Without any further characterization, which one of the following statements could you make about this species with a high degree of certainty?

*These organisms store their genetic information in a compartment called a nucleus.
*Information in DNA is translated into RNA and then transcribed into protein.
*The organisms are from the domain Archaea.
*Information in RNA is transcribed into DNA and then translated into protein.

37

In the scientific method, hypotheses lead most directly to

predictions

38

Theories typically rely on a single hypothesis tested several times; theories do not take into consideration multiple hypotheses.

false

39

One of your friends is arguing that—of course—viruses are "alive." What information would you provide to convince him that viruses can't be considered a "unit of life"?

Viruses cannot carry out metabolic reactions.

40

Given that archaeons and bacteria are both prokaryotes, how can archaeons and eukaryotes be more closely related than bacteria and archaeons?

Archaeons and eukaryotes likely have more similar genetic sequences compared to bacteria and archaeons.

41




The sum of all chemical reactions in a cell that are required to sustain life is referred to as_______________.

metabolism

42

Organisms from all classifications of life are composed of cells.

true

43

A boy observes a robin outside of his window. He notices the robin repeatedly cocks its head to one side before pecking the ground. The boy suspects that when the robin cocks its head it is actually listening for worms or insects underground. If the boy notes that a single robin routinely catches a worm after cocking its head, would this observation prove his hypothesis to be correct?

No, this observation would only support the boy's hypothesis, but not prove it.

44

A doctor suspects one of his patients has melanoma. He takes a very small biopsy—about 2mm—from a suspicious mole. This biopsy would only contain about 10 cells, and would make subsequent analyses very difficult.

false

45

Which one of the following represents the flow of information as described by the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?

Information in DNA is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein.

46

Though Archaea resemble members of the domain Bacteria structurally, they are actually more closely related to members of the domain ________.

Eukarya

47

The strongest evidence that a meteor impact is responsible for dinosaurs becoming extinct is provided by:

the presence of significant levels of iridium in the rock layers corresponding to the time of dinosaur extinction

48

Which one of the following entities does not possess the ability to synthesize its own proteins?

a viral particle

49

A boy observes a robin outside of his window. He notices the robin repeatedly cocks its head to one side before pecking the ground. The boy suspects that when the robin cocks its head it is actually listening for worms or insects underground. How could the boy test his hypothesis about robins and worms?

He could count how many times a single robin catches a worm after it cocks its head and pecks the ground.
He could catch a robin and place it in an enclosure without worms or insects, and observe whether the robin still cocks its head.
He could observe several robins, and see if they all exhibit the same head-cocking and worm-catching behavior.

50

You have learned that mutations can occur in DNA sequences. Are all mutations deadly?

No, some mutations can be beneficial.