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Flashcards in Biology Chapter 1 Deck (50)
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1

1st Law of Thermodynamics

states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed: it can only be transformed from one form into another. Total energy is constant, but the form of that energy can change

2

Entropy

Physicists quantify the amount of disorder in a system

3

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

states that the degree of disorder in the universe tends to increase.

4

Cell

simplest entity that can exist as an independent unit of life

5

Nucleic Acids

store and transmit information needed for growth, function, and reproduction. {1st essential feature}

6

Proteins

structural and functional molecules that do the work of the cell

7

RNA

a copy that proteins make of DNA's info, it is a closely related molecule (ribonucleic acid)

8

Transcription

synthesis of RNA from a DNA template

9

Translation

converts information stored in the language of nucleic acids to information in the language of proteins

10

central dogma

the basic flow of information in a cell, it constitutes a fundamental principle in Biology

11

Gene

specific stretches or segments of DNA according to the proteins that they encode

12

Plasma Membrane

2nd essential feature, separates the living material within the cell from the non living environment around it. (controls movement into and out of the cell)

13

Nucleus

houses the cells DNA

14

cytoplasm

everything but the nucleus,

15

Prokaryotes

cells without a nucleus

16

Eukaryotes

cells with a nucleus

17

Bacteria

Prokaryote, lack a nucleus

18

Archaea

Prokaryote, lack a nucleus (single celled flourish in hostile conditions)

19

Eukarya

Eukaryote

20

ATP

chemical form energy is stored in. (adenosine triphosphate)

21

Metabolism

chemical rx that cells use to convert energy from one form to another and to build and break down molecules

22

Mutation

errors in DNA can, and do, occur during the process of replication, and environmental insults can damage DNA.

23

3 Essential features of cells

-the capacity to store and transmit information
-a membrane that selectively controls movement in and out
-ability to harness energy from the environment

24

Evolution

change over time

25

Natural selection

variation with a population of organisms, and when that variation can be inherited, the variants best suited for growth and reproduction in a given environment will contribute disproportionately to the next generation

26

Environmental Variation

variation among individuals is sometimes due to differences in the environment

27

genetic variation

the other main cause of variation among individuals is differences in the genes that are transmitted from parents to their offspring

28

All cells require an archive of information.
A membrane to maintain the inside of the cell different from the outside.
The ability to harness energy from the environment

123

29

Which one of the following statements about hypotheses is incorrect?

Hypotheses that provide reasonable explanations do not need to be tested.

30

In Pasteur's experiment showing that living organisms arise from other living organisms, which one of the following statements most accurately describes Pasteur's hypothesis?

If microbes arise from non-living matter, they should appear spontaneously in sterile broth.