Flashcards in Bio Death Deck (133)
What is metabolism?
The sum of all chemical reactions taking place in an organism.
Cells in multicellular organisms have many different shapes and sizes. These differences in cells are called cell specialization. Cell specialization allows cells to....
Perform different functions.
The basic unit of length in the metric system is the
Living systems are
composed of two or more cells.
Suppose that a scientist proposes a hypothesis about how a newly discovered virus affects humans. Other virus researchers would likely
Design new experiments to test the proposed hypothesis
Using his antennae, the male moth finds female moths by following a trail of airborne chemicals (called pheromones) upwind to the female producing them. This is an example of how living things
Respond to stimuli
Life is organized in a hierarchal fashion. Which of the following sequences illustrates the hierarchy as it increases in complexity?
Molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria
To be more resistant to that antibiotic
Which of the following characteristics of living things best explains why some North American birds fly south for the winter
Living things respond to their environment
The role of a control in an experiment is to
Provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group
The standard or English system of measurement uses units such as yards, miles, quarts, and gallons. The metric system uses units such as meters, kilometers, millileters, and liters. Why is the metric system easier to use than the English system?
The metric system is based on multiples of 10.
The smallest unit of life is
Which of the following is NOT a way that science influences society ?
Science gives society answers to difficult ethical issues .
You are testing treatments for AIDS sufferers and find that 75% respond very well and 25% show no improvement or decline in health after your experimental treatment. You should
Review the results, modify the drug or the dosage, and repeat the experiment
How many meters are in 2.4 km?
During a controlled experiment, a scientist isolates and tests
A single variable
What is the difference between a tissue and an organ system?
An organ system includes tissues.
To test the effect of vitamin D growth, two groups of rats were raised under identical conditions and fed the same diet, but one of the groups also received daily injections of vitamin D. The injections of vitamin D in this experiment are considered the
To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be
Testable and falsifiable
1mL of an experimental drug is injected into 20 pregnant mice to observe possible side effects. Which of the following would be a suitable control group?
20 pregnant mice injected with 1mL of saline (water mixture)
Sweat glands are very important for humans. If a person is born without sweat glands, they typically do not survive. Why not?
Sweating is an important mechanism for maintaining temperature homeostasis.
A sunflower follows the Sun as it moves across the sky during the day.
Respond to stimuli
Humans get goosebumps when the temperature gets cold so they can warm themselves.
Over time the neck of a giraffe has increased as only those giraffes with longer necks survived and were able to reproduce to pass those genes to the next generation.
Unicellular organism moved from direct light.
Respond to stimuli
Carbon cycles travel through the biosphere in all of the following processes EXCEPT
When all vegetation is removed from a site by human activity or by natural forces such as a fire, _________ species are the first to begin colonizing the site.
The tiny wasp Ooencyrtus kuvannae lays its eggs inside a caterpillar. When the wasp larvae hatch, they burrow into the caterpillar and eat them from the inside. When they have completed their development, the larvae cut their way out of the caterpillar to begin their next stage of development. The caterpillar is chemically tricked into taking care of the wasp larvae until it starves to death. This is an example of
During a long period when there is no rainfall, a mountain may leave its usual hunting ground to drink from a farm pond. This behavior is due to
The change in an abiotic factor in its environment.
In an average ecosystem, about how much energy is present in the organisms at a given trophic level compared to the organisms at the higher trophic level?
Ten times as much
Animals that get energy by eating the carcasses of other animals that have been killed by predators or have died of natural causes are called
Introduced or exotic species, like the Spanish moss covering trees in
Florida, often explode in numbers, reaching densities in their new homes far greater than they ever did in their original range. This is most likely because
The competitors, predators, and parasites which normally control their population size are not present in their new home.
What is true about phosphorus?
Phosphorus is an important component of RNA and DNA.
A bird stalks, kills, and then eats an insect. Based on its behavior, which pair of ecological terms describes the bird?
To recycle nutrients, the minimum an ecosystem must have is
producers and decomposes.
A hypothetical community on a barren Mid-Atlantic island (based in the community founded by Darwin in the Galápagos Islands) consists of two fish-eating seabirds (the booby and the noddy), fungi and micro organisms that live on the birds dung, a tick that feeds on the birds, a moth that feeds on cast off feathers of the bird, a beetle that lives on the dung organisms, and spiders that eat other insects. There are no plants in this community. Which of the following incorrectly pairs a member of the community with its trophic level?
A. Tick, parasite
B. Spiders, top predators
C. Fungi, decomposers
D. Booby and noddy, primary producers
D. Booby and noddy, primary producers
The lowest level of environmental complexity that includes living and nonliving factors is the
All of the following factors contribute to Earth's climate EXCEPT
Which of the following types of sciences interaction is correctly paired with its effects on the density of the two interacting populations?
Commensalism: as one increases the other stays the same
Only 10 percent of the energy stored in an organism can be passed on to the next trophic level. Of the remaining energy, some is used for the organisms life processes, and the rest is
Eliminated as heat
During the course of the formation of a parasite/host relationship, a critical first step in this evolution would be
Deriving nourishment without killing its host
No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
Because of the competitive exclusion principle
Nitrogen fixation is carried out primarily by
Which of the following organisms is incorrectly paired with its trophic level?
Zooplankton - tertiary consumer
Which of the following organisms does NOT require sunlight to live?
How is parasitism different from commensalism?
One organism is harmed in parasitism and no organisms are harmed in commensalism.
The African elephant is considered to be a keystone species because
Removal of the elephants from their community would result in drastic changes in the entire community
In what way are herbivores and carnivores alike?
They obtain energy by consuming other organisms.
Which of the following could NOT be a topic for a community-level study of a hydro-thermal vent ecosystem (under-water volcano)?
Evolution in a bacterial population response to changing water composition and temperature
The energy that powers the flight of an eagle
Came originally from the Sun and will eventually return to space
If a field contains approximately 5000 kilocalories of energy in grass, which is eaten by crickets, which are eaten by birds, approximately how many kilocalories of energy could be in the birds which live in the field?
The Masai tribesmen of Africa regularly consume the blood and milk of their cattle without killing them. Based on this information alone, we might classify this relationship as ____________. However, it turns out that the cattle actually derive a net benefit as the herdsman also protect them from predators and them find water, food, and shelter. This relationship would instead best be classified as __________.
Nitrogen fixation is important because it
Synthesizes ground nitrogen from atmospheric nitrogen .
What is one difference between primary and secondary succession?
Secondary succession begins on soil and primary succession begins on newly exposed surfaces.
Which is an example of how biotic and abiotic factors interact?
Tree roots split apart rocks in the ground.
Which is a biotic factor that affects the size of a population in a specific ecosystem?
Number and kinds of predators in the ecosystem
Which of the following is NOT a likely characteristic of a pioneer plant species involved in primary or secondary succession?
Slow growing and reproduces rarely.
Which of the following is an example of cryptic coloration?
A "walking stick" that resembles a twig
A Dante that's dressed as a marine
Several species of warblers can live in the same spruce tree ONLY because they
Occupy different niches within the tree.
The simplest grouping of more than one kind of organism in the biosphere is
Corn planted in a field that has been previously planted with legumes and then plowed under is likely to be
more productive because bacteria living on the roots of legumes fix nitrogen in the soil.
The movements of energy and nutrients through living systems are different because
Energy flows in one direction, and nutrients recycle.
Earth has three main climate zones because of the differences in latitude and, thus,
Distribution of sunlight
Dwarf mistletoes are flowering plants that grow on certain forest trees. They obtain nutrients and water from the vascular tissues of the trees. The trees derive no known benefits from the dwarf mistletoes. What best describes the interactions between dwarf mistletoes and trees?
How does an area's weather different from an area's climate?
Weather is the area's day-to-day conditions and climate is the area's average conditions.
Two barnacles, Balanus and Cthamalus, can both survive on the lower rocks just above the low-tide line on the Scottish coast, but only Balanus actually does so, with Cthamalus adopting a higher zone. What best accounts for this niche separation?
Evidence shows that some grasses benefit from being grazed. Which of the following terms would best describe this plant-herbivore interaction ?
Which of the following levels of organization is arranged in the correct sequence from most to least inclusive ?
Ecosystem, community, population, individual
What is an example of Müllerian mimicry?
Two species of unpalatable butterfly that have the same color pattern
What is an example of Batesian mimicry?
A non-venomous snake that looks like a venomous snake
How do most primary producers make their own food?
By using light energy to make carbohydrates
An organism's niche is
The range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way it obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce
An interaction in which an animal feeds on a plant is
Most die young, but few live to old age.
Type III Survivorship Curve
Death rate constant over life spans.
Type II Survivorship Curve
Characteristic of squirrels and lizards.
Type II Survivorship Curve
Most offspring live a long life and did of old age.
Type I Survivorship Curve
Characteristic of mosquitoes.
Type III Survivorship Curve
Competition for nest sites
Population close to K
Affects all populations in similar ways - regardless of size and density
r-Selection life history emphasis
No carrying capacity, much lower K, keeps going
K-Selection life history emphasis
Stability (live) around carrying capacity
r-Selection relative body size
K-Selection relative body size
r-Selection number of offspring per reproduction
K-Selection number of offspring per reproduction
r-Selection age at first reproduction
K-Selection age at first reproduction
r-Selection quality of childcare
Low prenatal care
K-Selection quality of childcare
High prenatal care
Bunny or spider
Bear or human
Structures as different as human arms, bat wings, and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones, these bones having developed from very similar embryonic tissues. How do biologists interpret these similarities?
By identifying the bones as being homologous and by proposing that humans, bats, and dolphins share a common ancestor
According to the Hardy-Weinburg principle, genetic equilibrium would be more likely in a population of mice if
No natural selection
As a young biologist, Charles Darwin had expected the living plants of temperate South America would resemble those of temperate Europe, but he was surprised to rind that they more closely resembled the plants of tropical South America. The biological explanation for this observation is most properly associated with the field of
What is the main reason for the increase in the number of kingdoms?
As scientists learned more about genetics and biochemistry, some organisms were moved out of existing kingdoms and into new ones.
What do Hox genes control?
Patterns of embryological development
A single-gene trait that has two alleles and that shows a simple dominant-recessive pattern will result in
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed that organisms
Have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection
The situation in which allele frequencies in the gene pool of a population remain constant is called
What does a cladistic analysis show about organisms?
The relative degrees of evolutionary relationships among lineages.
The type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals is called_____________, whereas the type that occurs with a natural disaster is called ___________.
The founder effect, the bottleneck effect
Which naturalist synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin?
Which statement is part of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection ?
More offspring are produced than can possibly survive.
Study of evolutionary relationships
Consists of all the alleles of a population
Organisms with a vertebrate
Controlled by two or more traits; produces many possible
Examples include acidophile, halophile, methanogen
Are heterotrophic decomposers
Can be plant-like, animal-like, and fungi-like
Examples include E.coli salmonella
When comparing organisms from islands to the mainland, scientists notice the farther the island the more diverse they become
When comparing DNA and proteins, cabbage and cauliflower have very similar sequences
The similar development of cells in butterfly larvae and tadpoles
Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?