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Flashcards in Unit 9 Bio Test Deck (43)
0

Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into which location?

mitochondrial intermembrane space

1

When muscle cells undergo anaerobic respiration, they become fatigued and painful. This is now known to be caused by __________.

buildup of lactate

2

Comparing light reactions with the Calvin cycle....
Which one(s) require ATP?

Calvin cycle

3

Comparing light reactions and the Calvin cycle...
Which one(s) produces molecular oxygen (O2)?

light reaction

4

Comparing light reactions and the Calvin cycle...
Which one(s) produces NADPH?

light reaction

5

Comparing light reaction with the Calvin cycle...
Which one(s) requires CO2?

Calvin cycle

6

Comparing light reactions with the Calvin cycle...
Which one(s) produces three-carbon sugars?

Calvin cycle

7

Comparing light reactions and the Calvin cycle...
Which one(s) requires glucose?

neither one

8

How many molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2) would be produced by five turns of the citric acid cycle?

10

9

Starting with citrate, which would the the end products from three turns of the citric acid cycle?
A) 1 ATP, 2 CO2, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2
B) 3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2
C) 2 ATP, 2 CO2, 1 NADH, and 3 FADH2
D) 3 ATP, 3 CO2, 3 NADH, and 3 FADH2

B) 3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2

10

In cellular respiration, where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?

mitochondrial inner membrane

11

In a plant, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?

in both the thylakoid membrane and the inner mitochondrial membrane

12

In addition the ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?

NADH and pyruvate

13

Cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from which process?

chemiosmotic phosphorylation

14

During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?

food-> NADH-> electron transport chain-> oxygen (last acceptor)

15

The splitting of carbon dioxide to form oxygen gas and carbon compounds occurs during _______________.

neither photosynthesis nor respiration (H2O is split not CO2)

16

Why is glycolysis described as having an investment phase and a payoff phase?

it uses stored ATP and then forms a net increase in ATP

17

Which kind of poison would most directly interfere with glycolysis?

an agent that closely mimics the structure of glucose but is not metabolized

18

In any ecosystem, terrestrial or aquatic, what group(s) is always necessary?

autotrophs

19

Explain the relationship between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.

the light reactions provide ATP and NADPH (energy) to the Calvin cycles, and the cycle returns ADP, NADP+, and Phosphate (Pi) to the light reactions

20

Which of the following does NOT occur in the Calvin cycle?
A) regeneration of the CO2 acceptor
B) release of oxygen
C) oxidation of NADPH
D) consumption of ATP
E) carbon fixation

B) release of oxygen

21

Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?

it is found in the cytosol, does not involve oxygen, and is present in most organisms

22

When a leafy shoot from a plant is placed in a water solution with red food coloring (dye), which part becomes the most heavily stained?

xylem vessels in the stem

23

Assume a mitochondrion contains 58 NADH and 19 FADH2, approximately how many ATP molecules could be generated as a result of oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)?

212

24

What structure is most similar to ATP?

an RNA nucleotide

25

Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent?

glycolysis

26

Explain the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration.

photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, while respiration releases it

27

Approximately how many ATP molecules are produced from complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C6H12O6) in cellular respiration?

76

28

During cellular respiration, acetyl CoA accumulates in which location?

mitochondrial matrix

29

In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of ____________.

ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

30

In a mitochondria, chemiosmosis translocates protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis translocates photons from ____________________.

the stroma to the thylakoid space

31

What products of the light reactions are utilized in the Calvin cycle?

ATP and NADPH

32

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which stages of cellular respiration?

conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

33

A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are. Ring absorbed by this pigment?

blue and violet

34

Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed during glycolysis?

100%

35

Some photosynthetic organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photosystem 2, yet are able to survive. The best way to detect the lack of photosystem 2 would be _________________.

to test for the liberation of oxygen (O2) in the light

36

Synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic mechanism occurs during ___________________.

both photosynthesis and respiration

37

The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation (respiration) is ____________.

oxygen

38

When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a by-product of what?

splitting the water molecules

39

Cyanide is a poison that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron transport chain. What is a metabolic effect of this poison?

no proton (H+) would be produced, and ATP synthesis would cease

40

An animal has never had much energy. They discover that his mitochondria can use only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate that normal. What is the best explanation for his condition?

his mitochondria lacks the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane

41

What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?

synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide

42

The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?

accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain