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Flashcards in Biology Final Deck (161)
0

What is true concerning cancer cells?
A. They do not exhibit density dependent inhibition when growing in a culture.
B. When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle.
C. They are not subject to cell cycle controls.
D. B and C only
E. A, B, and C

E. A, B, and C

1

A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a Y chromosome is...
A. A somatic cell of a female
B. A sperm
C. An egg
D. A zygote
E. A somatic cell of a male

B. A sperm

2

Autosome

A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

3

In eukaryotic cells, the timing of the cell cycle is regulated by proteins called...
A. The nuclear envelope
B. Spindle fibers
C. Centrioles
D. Cyclin

D. Cyclin

4

Downs Syndrome

3 #21 chromosomes

5

Klinefelter's Syndrome

XXY, XXXY, etc

6

Jacob's Syndrome

XYY

7

Trisomy

XXX

8

Turner's Syndrome

Only X for the sex chromosome

9

Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n=16?
A. The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell
B. Each cell has 8 homologous pairs
C. The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell
D. During the S phase of the cell cycle, there will be 32 separate chromosomes

B. Each cell has 8 homologous pairs

10

If mammalian cells receive a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, the research team would first see the radioactive thymine
A. In the replicated strands of DNA
B. In the telophase
C. In the non-dividing state of interphase
D. In metaphase

A. In the replicated strands of DNA

11

Cell reproduction in prokaryotic cells differs from eukaryotic cells in that

Each prokaryotic cell has a circular chromosome but the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells are linearly condensed into chromosomes

12

Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of

The random and independent way in which each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I.

13

Chiasmata are what we see under a microscope that let us know what has occurred

Crossing over

14

Chiasmata

The points of contact between paired chromatids during meiosis, resulting in a cross-shaped configuration and representing the cytological manifestation of crossing over.

15

Crossing over

Exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes

16

Sister chromatids

Corresponding legs of a chromosome that are bound by a centromere; identical

17

Homologous chromosomes

Chromosome pairs that code for the same trait but have different structures

18

Chromatin

Loosely bound DNA before coiling

19

Chromosomes

Are made of coiled DNA with two chromatids bound by a centromere after replication

20

Hydrangea plants of the same genotype are planted in a large flower garden. Some of the plants produce blue flowers and others pink flowers. This can best be explained by

Environmental factors such as soil pH

21

Two characters that appear in a 9:3:3:1 ratio in the F2 generation should have what property?

Sixteen different phenotypes

22

Two true breeding stocks of pea plants are crossed. One parent has red, axial flowers and the other has white, terminal flowers. All F1 individuals have red, axial flowers. The genes for flower color and location assort independently. If 1000 F2 offspring resulted from the cross, approximately how many of them would you expect to have red, terminal flowers?

190

23

Trait

A variant for a character

24

Character

A heritable feature that varies among individuals

25

Gene

A heritable unit that determines a character and can exist in different forms

26

In a plant cell, where are the ATP synthase complexes located?

Thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane

27

During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?

Food to NADH to the ETC to oxygen

28

Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen is present or absent?
A. Chemiosmosis
B. Oxidative phosphorylation
C. Electron transport
D. The citric acid cycle
E. Glycolysis

E. Glycolysis

29

When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a byproduct of which of the following?
A. The electron transfer system of photosystem 1
B. The electron transfer system of photosystem 2
C. Splitting of water molecules
D. Forming NADP+

C. Splitting of water molecules

30

A young animal has never had much energy. He is brought to a veterinarian for help and is sent to the animal hospital for some tests. They discover his mitochondria can only use fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells produce more lactate than normal. What is wrong?

His mitochondria lack the transport protein that moves pyruvate across the outer mitochondrial membrane.

31

After the second agitation of the membrane vesicles, what must be lost from the inner mitochondrial membrane?

ATP synthase, in whole or in part

32

Have sexual spores found in a club shaped cell

Basidiomycota

33

Sexual spores found in sac-like structures

Ascomycota

34

Tough zygospore that can stay dormant for long periods of time

Zygomycota

35

Flagellated spores

Chytridomycota

36

What would happen if mosquitoes disappeared from the Plasmodium life cycle?

The Plasmodium life cycle would be interrupted and the infection could not be passed on.

37

Which term most accurately describes the nutritional mode of healthy P. bursaria?

A mix between autotroph and heterotroph

38

At which location is the mycelium currently absorbing the most nutrients and producing fruiting bodies?

At the outer line of the circle

39

Which type of fungi have a mutualistic relationship by breaking down nutrients for plants?
A. Parasitic fungi
B. None of the choices
C. Truffles
D. Lichen

B. None of the choices

40

Which of these are mutualistic partnerships that involves a protist and a host organism?
A. Cellulose digesting protists: wood eating termites
B. Zooxanthellae: coral reefs
C. Giardia: humans
D. All except C

D. All except C

41

Which of these structures are most likely to be a component of both Chytrid zoospores and motile animal cells?
A. Flagella
B. Haustoria
C. Pseudopods
D. Cilia
E. Pellicle

A. Flagella

42

The Ascomycetes get their name from which aspect of their life cycle?
A. The shape of their spore
B. The type of vegetative mycelium
C. Vegetative growth form
D. Sexual spores
E. Asexual spore production

D. Sexual spores

43

Paramecium

Ciliophora

44

Plasmodium

Sporozoa

45

Red algae

Rhodophyta

46

Brown algae

Phaeophyta

47

Common molds

Zygomycota

48

Club fungi

Basidiomycota

49

Spirogyra

Chlorophyta

50

Diatoms

Chrysophyta

51

Euglena

Euglenophyta

52

Volvox

Chlorophyta

53

Dinoflagellates

Pyrrophyta

54

What is the most probable fate of a newly emerging virus that causes a high mortality rate in its host?

The newly emerging virus will die out rather quickly or will mutate to be far less lethal

55

If the vertical axis refers to Darwinian fitness then what is the most valid and accurate measure of fitness?

Number of generations per unit of time

56

If new genetic variation in the experimental populations arose solely by spontaneous mutations, then the most effective process for subsequently increasing the prevalence of the beneficial mutations in the population over the course of generations is

Binary fission

57

The thermoacidophile, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, lacks peptidoglycan. What is likely true of this species?

Archaean, optimal pH of enzymes lies below 7, could inhabit certain hydrothermal springs

58

Though plants, fungi, and prokaryotes all have cell walls, we place them in different taxa. What observation comes closest to explaining the basis for placing these organisms in different taxa well before relevant data from molecular systematics became available?

Their cell walls are composed of very different biochemicals

59

What is true about prokaryotes?

They divide by binary fission, without mitosis or meiosis

60

What molecule makes up the viral envelope?

Glycoproteins

61

The sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes associated with allergies are caused when

Mast cells release histamines

62

What differentiates T cells and B cells?

T cells but not B cells can directly attack and destroy invading pathogens

63

Which of the following might be a child with Bruton's disease (underdeveloped B cells)?
A. John- immature T cells, missing CD4 receptors
B. Denise- low level of antibody response
C. Jeff- no plasma cells
D. Susan- no evidence of a thymus gland

C. Jeff- no plasma cells

64

Some viruses can undergo latency (dormancy), the ability to remain inactive for some period of time. Which of the following is an example?

Herpes simplex viruses whose reproduction is triggered by physiological or emotional stress in the host

65

When will helper T cells be activated?

When an antigen is displayed by a dendritic cell

66

Oxygen and carbon dioxide move across respiratory membranes by

Simple diffusion

67

Why is double loop circulation better for larger, more active animals than single loop?

It is difficult for single pump to force blood through the entire system of a large animal

68

What is the simplest form of a nervous system?

Nerve net

69

True or False: mollusks have an open circulatory system where blood flows freely through open spaces called lacunae and sinuses.

True

70

Chitin

A polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of crustaceans

71

Carapace

Hard exoskeleton found in crustaceans

72

Endoderm

Inner layer of the germ layers

73

Karyotype

A display of every pair of homologous chromosomes within a cell, organized according to size and shape

74

What takes place in both mitosis and meiosis?

Separation of sister chromatids

75

What occurs in meiosis and not mitosis?

Synapsis

76

Synapsis occurs during

Prophase 1

77

Independent assortment occurs during

Metaphase 1

78

True or false: the controls on cell division can be turned on and off

True

79

Only _____ can cause genetic diversity in asexual reproduction.

Mutations

80

There are _____ the number of centromeres as chromatids.

Half; example: 20 chromatids=10 centromeres

81

After telophase 1, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is

Haploid; two chromatids

82

What is nondisjunction?

When the chromosome pairs don't separate during anaphase

83

What results from nondisjunction during meiosis 1?

Two n+1 gametes and two n-1 gametes

84

What results from nondisjunction in meiosis II?

Two normal, one n-1, and one n+1

85

Why do chromosomes coil during mitosis?

To allow the chromosomes to move without becoming entangled or breaking

86

What happens during meiosis?

Reduction division, Synapsis, independent assortment, crossing over

87

The daughter cells at the end of mitosis have ______ number of chromosomes and _______ amount of DNA as their parent cell during G1.

The same; the same

88

Oncogenes

BAD

89

Proto-oncogenes

GOOD

90

Chromosomes form tetrads during

Prophase 1 of meiosis

91

If a p53 is mutated, the cell will

Continue to divide

92

P53 is like

The brake

93

If spindle fibers are disrupted, cell cycle will stop at

Metaphase

94

What could result in a tumor?

Over division of cells and lack of appropriate cell death

95

Substitution

One base is changed to another

96

Deletion

One base is deleted

97

Insertion

One base is inserted

98

Frameshift mutations

Result in all of the following codons being changed

99

What fuses in middle of plant cell during cytokinesis?

Golgi apparatus vesicles

100

______ wraps DNA into _______.

Histone; nucleosomes

101

During what stage does coiling occur?

Prophase

102

3:1 ratio suggests

Heterozygous parents

103

Roan coats are an example of

Codominance

104

To get 1 red: 2 roan: 1 white

Roan x roan

105

A cross between individuals heterozygous for a single character

Mono hybrid cross

106

A cross between an individual with an unknown genotype and homozygous recessive individual

Testcross

107

ETC pumps H+ ions into

The mitochondrial intermembrane space

108

What requires ATP?

Calvin Cycle

109

What produces oxygen?

The light reactions

110

Produces NADPH?

Light reactions

111

Requires carbon dioxide?

Calvin Cycle

112

Produces three carbon sugars

Calvin cycle

113

Requires glucose

Neither the light dependent or Calvin cycle

114

_____ carbons produced by each turn of the citric acid cycle.

2

115

How much ATP is generated by each turn of the citric acid cycle?

1

116

In cellular respiration, where are the proteins of the ETC located?

Mitochondrial inner membrane

117

End products of glycolysis?

ATP, NADH, and pyruvate

118

Cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from what?

Chemiosmotic phosphorylation

119

The splitting of carbon dioxide occurs

Never!! Neither in photosynthesis nor in respiration

120

What occurs during Calvin cycle?

Regeneration of carbon dioxide acceptor, oxidation of NADPH, consumption of ATP, and carbon fixation

121

Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?

Found in cytosol, doesn't involve oxygen, present in most organisms

122

NADH makes _______ ATP

3

123

FADH2 makes _______ ATP

2

124

RNA and ATP are both

Nucleotides

125

Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules while cellular respiration...

Releases it

126

During cellular respiration, oxygen

Acts as a receptor for electrons and hydrogen

127

1 molecule of glucose broken down during cellular respiration makes ______ ATP

36-38

128

Krebs cycle occurs in

Mitochondrial matrix

129

When yeast do through fermentation, _____ is produced.

Ethanol (alcohol)

130

In photosynthesis, chemiosmosis translocates protons from

The stroma to the thylakoid space

131

Carbon dioxide is released during

The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coA

132

Substrate level phosphorylation

Making ATP without ATP synthase

133

Find photosystem II...

Test for liberation of oxygen in the light

134

Trypanosoma and Plasmodium both

Can frequently change their surface proteins

135

Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and

Cyanobacteria or green algae

136

Fungi and Protists

Are eukaryotes

137

Fungi and bacteria

Can both go through extracellular digestion

138

Protists exchange genetic material during

Conjugation

139

Sporozoans are

Parasitic

140

_________ would benefit most if their fungi competitors died.

Prokaryotes

141

Amoebas feed by

Phagocytosis

142

Plasmodium is

A sessile organism

143

Which Protists get nutrients from absorbing molecules from other organisms through their cell walls and membranes?

Water molds

144

This phylum includes yeast and penicillin species

Ascomycota

145

All fungi are

Heterotrophic eukaryotes

146

Cytoplasmic projection

Pseudopod

147

True or false: Yeast are multicellular fungi.

False; unicellular

148

What is the basic structure of a virus?

DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat

149

Photoautotrophs use

Light as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source

150

Can survive with oxygen or without oxygen

Facultative anaerobes

151

Must have oxygen

Obligate aerobes

152

Can't be in the presence of oxygen

Obligate anaerobes

153

What three characteristics classify prokaryotes?

Shape, movement, how they get energy

154

Rabies

Example of zoonosis

155

Which is an example of a vector and the disease it spreads?

The deer tick and Lyme disease

156

The body's most important nonspecific defense is

The skin

157

HIV kills

Helper T cells

158

Four types of animal tissue are

Nervous, epithelial, muscle, and connective

159

What do scientists rely on to classify animals?

Embryological development and adult body plans for ALL animals

160

A coelom is a body cavity completely lined with

Mesoderm