Bio Test #7 Flashcards Preview

Honors Biology > Bio Test #7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bio Test #7 Deck (57):
1

CVS

sample of Chorion is obtained with a catheter inserted through the vagina; done at 8 weeks; cells can be cultured and grown

2

Nuchal Transluency Scan

scan (ultasound), non-invasive, look for presence of nuchal fluid, can indicate down syndrome, farther tests are recommended

3

trimosy

have an extra chromosome on a pair and has the number of the pair that is in

4

What are the examples of trimosies?

Trimosy 21 (down syndrome), Trisomy 18 (Edwards Syndrome)

5

What are trimosy of sex chromosomes?

Triple X Syndrome (female)
Turner Syndrome (female)
Kleinefelter Syndrome (female)
Syndrome XYY (male)

6

What are risks of Amniocentesis and CVS?

it could result in termination of pregnancy

7

meiosis

a form of cell division that produces Gametes

8

gametes

general name for all sex cells

9

What is another name for meiosis?

reduction division

10

reduction division

a diploid nucleus (2n) forms an haploid nucleus

11

diploid

each cell has 2 sets of chromosomes for each pair (2n)

12

haploid

cell with only 1 chromosome for each pair (n)

13

What happens in meiosis?

a diploid cell generates 4 haploid cells different from the starting cell

14

What are the 2 main phases of meiosis?

Meiosis I
Meiosis II

15

Meiosis I

homologous chromosomes separate

16

Meiosis II

sister chromatids separate

17

Homologous Chromosomes

chromosomes that control the same characteristics; have same shape, length, and carry same genes, or same loci

18

What are the phases in Meiosis I?

prophase I
metaphase I
anaphase I
telophase I

19

What are the phases in Meiosis II?

prophase II
metaphase II
anaphase II
telophase II

20

What occurs in Prophase I?

nuclear membrane disappears, centrioles migrate to opposite poles, spindle starts forming & organizing, chromosomes finish condensing, spindle attaches to chromosomes at centromere (spindle attaches to only 1 side of chromosome)

21

What occurs in Metaphase I?

homologous chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell; spindle fibers move them to align them

22

What occurs in Anaphase I?

spindle fibers contract & homologous chromosomes are pulled apart

23

What occurs in Telophase I?

spindle fibers disappear, chromosome arrive at opposite poles; sometimes nuclear membrane reappear (sometimes it moves straight into Prophase II); chromosomes uncoil

24

What occurs in Prophase II?

nuclear envelope disappears; chromosomes recoil; spindle reforms; centrioles migrate to opposite poles (spindle each chromosomes on both sides)

25

What occurs in Metaphase II?

chromosomes alighn along equator of cell

26

What occurs in Anaphase II?

sisters chromatids spearate as the spindle contracts

27

What occurs in Telophase II?

chromosomes arrive at opposite poles; spindle disappears; nuclear membrane reappears; cells prepare for cytokinesis

28

What occurs in cytokinesis of meiosis?

cytoplasm is divided; there are now 4 qhaploid cells

29

genotype

the alleles possessed by an organism

30

phenotype

the characteristic observed in an organism

31

homozygous

having 2 identical alleles

32

heterozygous

having 2 different alleles

33

dominant

a trait that affects the phenotype whether it is in homozygous or heterozygous form

34

recessive

a trait that affects the phenotype only when it is in homozygous form

35

carrier

an individual that has the recessive allele of a gene but does not show any affect

36

co-dominance

both traits have an effect on phenotype

37

What are the two types of co-dominance?

co-dominant
incomplete dominance

38

co-dominant

both traits show up on the phenotype. one is not stronger than the other

39

incomplete dominance

the two traits blend & create an intermediate trait; generally creates extra phenotype

40

monohybrid crosses

two organisms are "crossed" (mating) and 1 trait is observed

41

test cross

breeding an unknown organism with a homozygous recessive

42

When is a trait sex-linked?

A trait is sex-linked when it is on the non-homologous region of the x-chromosomes

43

HOw many alleles will a male have in the non-homologous?

For any gene in this region a male will only have one allele

44

What are males genotype stipulations?

males cannot be carriers (it either has it or not); male will pass a trait to his daughters (not his sons); males with conditions always inherit them from their mothers

45

What are the 4 possible blood types?

A, B, AB, & 0

46

What blood type alleles are co-dominant with each other, but dominant over 0?

A & B

47

Antigen

protein on a surface of cell

48

characteristics of blood type A

has red blood cells with Antigen A and produces antibodies for blood type B

49

characteristics of blood type B

has antigen B on blood cells and produces antibodies for type A

50

characteristics of blood type AB

has both A & B antigens and does not produce antibodies

51

characteristics of blood type 0

does not have antigens, but produces both antibodies A & B

52

What blood type is a universal acceptor?

AB

53

What blood type is a universal donor?

0

54

Rh Factor

an antigen on blood cells

55

What are the characteristics of Rh-?

produces antibodies for Rh+, and can donate to Rh+ AND Rh- patients

56

What are the characteristics of Rh+?

does not produce antibodies for Rh. It can only donate to Rh+

57

pedigree

diagrams used by geneticists to collect info on human families.