Bio Test #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bio Test #2 Deck (52):
1

What are the steps to communicate peers?

1. Use right statistics
2. Make tables and graphs
3. Research Literature
4. Publish

2

statistics

mathematical formulas that describe our data and comparing to other data

3

What are the significances of tables & graphs?

Help visualize, organize, compare, analyze data. It can also help simplify information and sometimes can help predict

4

What must tables have?

a table needs all the correct units, a title, & the same significant digits throughout the table

5

What must graphs have?

A graph needs to have all the info to understand it on the graph; label axes & put a title

6

what is the importance of the research of literature?

to know how to start & what is being done before & to strengthen your conclusion

7

What is the publishing process?

Scientist picks a journal & adapts his/her paper to the style of journal. Sends it to publisher who sends it out to 3 reviewers, who either accept it w/ corrections, or rejects it. If rejected, sent to another publisher. If accepted with change, scientist needs to make changes & send it back (paper can come back for change just 2 times). If paper is accepted, publisher sends it to print & scientist needs to check everything looks right. If paper is ok, it is published

8

Why is publishing such a lengthy process?

to ensure that science is accurate & that only the best & most valid gets published

9

How do you wear clothes in a lab?

not baggy; hair pulled back; protective gear; no dangling jewelry; closed toe shoes; may not wear contacts

10

What should the behavior be in a lab?

no food or drinks; move carefully around the lab; no horseplay; notify the teacher immediately; know location of emergency station; listen for instructions

11

What should the technical behavior be in a lab?

pour water first & then acid to dilute the acid right away; pour away from you & others; clean it from outside moving in where there is a spill; to smell, waft over beaker/tube; to heat, use tongs to hold tube away from you, wearing heat resistant gloves

12

How do you search online?

1. Check web address
2. check credibility of author
3. check references
4. check date info was posted
5. double check info by looking at other websites
6. when referencing the website add the date of access

13

What are the different types of microscopes?

light microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope

14

What are advantages of a light microscope?

Material to observe is very easy to prepare; living material can be observed; allows to see colors; large field of view

15

Why is it good that living material can be observed?

We can observe movement or life processes

16

Why is it good that light microscopes allow scientists to see colors?

It is useful for ID of different organisms & useful to recognize stained cells

17

What are disadvantages of a light microscopes?

It has poor resolution & does not allow us to see any of the organelles inside the cell

18

Why is it bad to have poor resolution?

it allows us to see objects whose size is 0.25 micrometers & does not allow us to see any of the organelles inside the cell

19

What are advantages of both electron microscopes?

very good resolutions (x500,000), which allows us to see objects as small as .25 nanometers & many details

20

What are disadvantages of both electron microscopes?

sample is difficult to prepare (lengthy process & use toxic substances); sample must be killed; image is monochrome (different shapes of black, white, & gray); small field of view

21

What is the difference between the SEM & TEM?

SEM have 3D images, outside; TEM can give good images of inside of sample, twice the resolution of SEM, 2D image, sees the smallest of the electron microscope

22

Tube

connects the eyepiece to the objectives

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arm

supports the tube & connects it to the base

24

Revolving Nosepiece/ Turnet

holds many objectives

25

condenser

allows more or less light go through your object

26

How do you calculate the magnification on an object?

Eyepiece (10) x objective
Ex. 10 x 4

27

How do you calculate the magnification from a picture?

You use the scale bar given and you measure the size of the scale bar over the label of scale bar

28

After finding the magnification of a picture, how do you determine the actual size of the object in the picture?

Measuring the size of the object, divide it by the magnification and then convert to micrometers

29

matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

30

mass

quantity of matter that an object has

31

weight

result of gravity acting on mass
Ex: same object on earth & the moon will have the same mass, but different

32

What are essential to life processes?

Chemical changes

33

Elements

substances that cannot be broken into anything smaller (chemically)

34

What are the four main elements in a living organism?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, & nitrogen

35

Carbon

C, main organic molecule compound (but also forms inorganic compounds such as Carbon Dioxide or Carbonates). It can form 4 covalent bonds with other elements

36

Hydrogen

H2, one of the main elements of organic molecules
(inorganic: H20) can form one covalent bond

37

Oxygen

O2, one of the main elements of organic compounds
(inorganic: H2O & O2)

38

Nitrogen

N2, part of amino acids, which is the building block of proteins; inorganic compounds: nitrate are important for plants, put in fertilizer

39

Calcium

Ca, part of bones, teeth, shells; an important neurotransmitter

40

Sodium

Na, important neurotransmitter

41

Phosphorous

P, part of the DNA molecule, ATP (main form of energy in the cell), & phospholipid bilayer (cell membrane)

42

Iron

Fe, part of hemoglobin (responsible for oxygen transport)

43

Atom

smallest unit of matter, so small that it cannot be seen

44

Nucleus

central region, where the bulk of mass and protons & neutrons are located there

45

Neutrons

no charge

46

Protons

positive charge

47

Electrons

negatively charged; located around the nucleus & move at very high speed (further from the nucleus need to have more energy) balanced with an equal number of protons

48

orbital

3D regions where we are more likely to find electrons

49

Why is atomic mass not always a whole number?

Atomic mass is the "average" atomic mass, but it also takes into account the relevant abundance of the different isotope in the element- that's why!

50

Ion

if an atom gains an electron, it becomes negatively charged

51

Cation

if an atom loses an electron, it becomes positively charged

52

Isotopes

the different number of neutrons in an element