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Flashcards in Bio Test #1 Deck (76):
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Biology

study of life

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Biologist

study how living things work, interact with their environments, and change over time

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How do we determine if something is living or not?

By the 7 characteristics: organization, homeostasis, metabolism, growth & development, reproduction, response to stimuli, change over time

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organization

high degree of order within an organism

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cell

basic structure of organization, smallest living thing

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atom

smallest unit of matter

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Homeostasis

equilibrium, "same stillness; how the body maintains its internal stability even if external conditions are constantly changing

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negative feedback mechanism

trying to create a response that is opposite; when the body senses a change it activates a response that negates or reverses the change, Ex. if temperature goes down, the response pushes the temperature up

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Receptor

structure that senses change

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Control Center

processes the info & makes decision about what response to use

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effector

structure that carries out the response and restores homeostasis

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Positive Feedback Mechanism

generates a response that reinforces or continues the change; can be harmful or life threatening because of its self-amplifying nature; it brings the organism even further from the equilibrium. Ex: child birth- baby's head pushes against the cervix triggering contractions, baby pushes even more, contractions get stronger, baby comes out, contractions stop

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metabolism

complete set of chemical reactions that occur in living cells, push & fueled through energy

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What are the differences between the 2 metabolic reactions: catabolic & anabolic?

catabolic- yield energy by breaking down compounds
Anabolic- use energy to build new compounds

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metabolic pathways

series of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes

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Enzymes

proteins that speed up the rate of the reaction

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Metabolic Rate

speed of metabolism, different for each species & it influences how much food an organism is going to require

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development

any change in form of function in the life time of an organism

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growth

generally a change in size

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differentiation

process in which cells that are not specialized (generalists/ stem cells) become specialized & start performing a specific task

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reproduction

passing of genes onto offspring

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What are the 2 ways to reproduce?

Asexual- uses mitosis, & only 1 organism needed, new organism is identical to parent organism
Sexual- meiosis, 2 organisms are needed for the formation of sex cells called Gametes, new organism is different from both parent organisms

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Stimulus

change, can be external (environment) or internal (inside body cell)

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What are the 3 main themes of biology?

Diversity & Unity of Life Interdependence of Organisms Evolution of Life

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Genetic Code

all living things have DNA

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DNA

made of the same molecules in all living things, has the same shape (double helix) in all living things; the foundation of genetic engineering

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presence of organelles

not all the same one are present in all cells, but there are some

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Carolous Linnaeus

created the binomial system in 1735

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Rules of Binomial System

each species has 2 name (genus & species); Genus is always capitalized and species is always lower-cased; names must be in Latin; handwritten names must be underlines; when typed it must be in italics; when wanting to shorten the name after the first full out name, write the 1st initial of the genus, and the whole species name

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What is the purpose of classification?

to avoid confusion between scientists all over the world by studying organisms & organizing them we can understand evolutionary relationship
can help us predict physiological responses or genetic characteristics of different species

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ecology

science that studies how organisms interact with each other and their environment

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species

all organisms that share similar characteristics can interbreed & produce fertile offspring

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population

animals of the same species that live in the same area

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community

all the different populations living in the same area

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biosphere

all areas of air, land & water where life is found

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ecosystem

communities & their environment; characterized by energy flows and chemical cycling

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climate

general pattern of the weather, main factor that determines where a certain ecosystem will occur

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Human Population

the only species that can modify ecosystems for our own purpose, causes them to be the main organisms responsible for destruction or damage of ecosystem; depend on a healthy ecosystem for food, medicines, raw materials

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biodiversity

total number of species in an ecosystem, used to gauge the health of an ecosystem

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extinction

death of a species or a large group; preserving biosphere helps prevent this; 400 species are affected by this every day

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evolution

process by which inherited characteristics within a population change over generations to the point that eventually a new species can emerge

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what does evolution explain?

how organisms alive today are related to those in the past, helps us understand mechanisms behind organisms' look & behavior

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Natural Selection

ability of population of organisms to change over time

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Why is natural selection important?

It allows survival in an ever changing environment

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Evolution by Natural Selection

organisms that exhibit certain favorable traits are more likely to survive & reproduce

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What is a product of evolution by natural selection?

adaptations

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Adaptations

traits that improve an individuals ability to survive & reproduce in a specific environment

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Charles Darwin

person responsible for introducing the concept of evolution by natural selection

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Scientific Method

an organized approach to analyze any question about the natural word

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What are the 2 main principles that the scientific method is based on?

1. all events in the natural world have a natural cause
2. uniformity- the same laws apply in the same way at all times & places

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Steps of the Scientific Method

1. Observation
2. Hypothesis
3. Prediction
4. Experiment
5. Analyze Data & Draw Conclusions
6. Communicate to peers

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observation

fact that generates a question, "curiosity"

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Hypothesis

come up with possible answers

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Prediction

propose an outcome for the hypothesis

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Experiment

How you decide to test your hypothesis

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What are the steps of experiments?

1. Set experimental groups
2. Set variables
3. The amount of repetitions

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control group

an experimental group that offers a base line to compare your results

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What can control be?

Control can be either the treatment that reproduces what happens "naturally" or the group where the treatment is not applied

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independent variable

what is manipulated by the experimenter; should be the only thing that changes among the experimental groups; try to specify a unit if possible

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Dependent Variable

what is effected by independent variable; what you measure; always remember to specify unit

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controlled variables

all the other variables that affect the dependent variable & that need to be kept the same so that they do not influence the effect of the independent variables

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What are ways to have repetitions?

repeat experiment several times or increase the number of trials or both

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organization

high degree of order within an organism's internal & external parts, & in its interactions with living world

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unicellular

made up of one cell

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multicellular

made up of multiple cell

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organ system

groups of specialized parts that carry out a certain function in the organism, made up of organs

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organs

structures that carry out specialized jobs within an organ system, made up of tissues

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tissues

groups of cells that have similar abilities and that allow organs to function

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what must cells have?

cells must be covered by a membrane, contain all genetic info needed for replication, & to carry out their functions

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organelles

tiny structures that carry out functions needed for the cell to stay alive

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biological molecules

the chemical compounds that provide physical structure & that bring about movement, energy use, & other cellular functions, made up of atoms

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Why do living things grow?

resulting from the division & enlargement of cells

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cell division

formation of 2 new cells from an existing cell

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Why is reproduction important?

it is essential to continuate the species

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gene

a short segment of DNA that contains the instructions for a single trait of an organism

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domains

major subdivision of all organisms