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Inability to repair thymine dimers

Xeroderma pigmentosum

1

Inability to repair mismatch strand

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon

2

Triple repeat expansion

Huntington disease

3

Caloric deprivation is relatively greater than the reduction in protein

Marasmus

4

Alcohol leads to fat accumulation in the liver

Fatty liver

5

Cerebrohepatorenal syndrome due to absence of peroxisomes

Zellweger Syndrome

6

Defect in peroxisomal activation of VLCFA leads to accumulation of VLCFA in the blood and tissues

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

7

Accumulation of phytanic acid

Refsum's disease

8

Hypoglcin from unripe fruit of the akee tree inactivates medium and short chain actylCoA dehydrogenase

Jamaican vomiting sickness

9

Excess TAGs and chylomicrons in blood leads to deposition in liver, skin, pancreas

Type I hyperglyceridemia
(Genetic absence of lipoprotein lipase)

10

Elevated LDL cholesterol with increased risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease

Type II Hypercholesterolemia
(LDL receptor deficiency)

11

Accumulation of fat in intestinal enterocytes and hepatocytes, with deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids

Abetalipoproteinemia

12

Failure to thrive, salt-wasting, hypoglycemia, ambiguous genitalia

CAH

13

Mental retardation, cherry red spot on macula, lysosomes with onion skin (but no heoatosplenomegaly) from accumulation of GM2 ganglioside

Tay-Sachs Disease

14

Mental retardation, aseptic necrosis of femur, enlarged liver and spleen from accumulation of glucosylceramide

Gaucher's disease

15

Mental retardation, enlarged liver and spleen, cherry red spot on macula, foam cells from accumulation of sphingomyelin

Niemann-pick disease

16

Acute arthritis with deposition of uric acid crystals

Gout

17

Gout and self mutilation

Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome
(HGPRT deficiency)

18

Severe combined immunodeficiency

ADA

19

Abnormal growth Megaloblastic anemia, orotate in urine

Orotic acid urea

20

Sickle cell disease

Point mutation

21

Protein deprivation that is relative greater than the reduction in total calories

Kwashiorkor

22

Photosensitivity, chronic inflammation to overt blistering and shearing in exposed areas of the skin due to defects in heme synthesis

Porphyrias

23

Mental retardation from blocked degradation of branched-chain amino acids

MSVD

24

Staghorn calculi due to inherited defect of renal tubular amino acid transporter

Cystinuria

25

Atherosclerosis, lens subluxation, stroke, myocardial infarction, osteoporosis, tall stature

Homocystinuria

26

Decreases pigmentation that increases risk for skin cancer

Albinism

27

Urine turns black upon standing with debilitating arthralgias

Alkaptonuria

28

Musty body odor, mental retardation, growth retardation, fair skin, eczema

Phenylketonuria

29

Severe mental retardation, coarse facial features, and skeletal abnormalities from accumulation of partially degraded glycoproteins in lysosomes

I-cell disease

30

Impaired transfer of copper from intestinal mucosal cells to the blood leading to growing retardation, mental deficiency and kinky hair

Menke's syndrome

31

Hepatolenticular degeneration from accumulation of copper in tissues, with low levels of ceruloplasmin

Wilson's disease

32

Panacinar emphysema and liver failure

A-1 antitrypsin deficiency

33

Aortic dilatation, dolichostenomelia, arachnodactyly

Mafran syndrome

34

Hereditary nephritis with sensorineural hearing loss

Alport's syndrome

35

The skin breaks and blisters as a result of minor trauma

Epidermolysis bullosa

36

Loose teeth, sore spongy gums, poor wound healing, petechiae on skin and mucous membranes

Scurvy

37

Berry aneurysms, hyperextensible skin, hypermobile joints, tendency to bleed

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

38

Blue sclera, multiple fractures, conductive hearing loss

Osteogenesis imperfecta

39

Spectrin deficiency causes spherical RBCs that are rapidly culled by the spleen

Hereditary spherocytosis

40

Synthesis of b-chains is decreased or absent

Beta thalassemia

41

Synthesis of a-chains is decreased or absent

Alpha thalassemia

42

Glutame is replaced by valine at position 6 of the b-globin chain, causing hemoglobin that polymerizes inside the RBC

Sickle cell disease

43

Fetal neurodenegerative diseases characterized by spongiform changes, astrocytic gliomas and neuronal loss

Prion disease

44

Progressive cognitive and behavioral impairment due to accumulation of amyloid plaques in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex

Alzheimer's disease

45

Fructosuria, severe hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, liver damage, jaundice

Fructose intolerance (Aldolate B deficiency)

46

Benign fructosuria

Fructokinase deficiency

47

Galactosemia, galactosuria, cataracts in averagely childhood

Galactokinase deficiency

48

Cataracts within a few days of birth, vomiting and diarrhea after milk ingestion, lethargy, hypotonia, mental retardation

Classic Galactosemia
Galactose 1P uridyltransferase deficiency

49

Recurrent pyogenic infections due to impairment of respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes

Chronic Granulomatous disease (NADPH oxidase deficiency)

50

Decreased NADPH in RBCs leads to hemolytic anemia due to poor RBC defense against oxidizing agents

G6PD deficiency

51

Myoglobinuria with strenuous exercise

McArdle syndrome

52

Hepatomegaly, milder form of Von Gierke disease

Cori disease (debranching enzyme deficiency)

53

Cardiomegaly and heart failure from impaired glycogen metabolism

Pompe disease

54

Severe fasting, hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, elevated glycogen in liver

Von Gierke disease
(Glucose 6-phosphate deficiency)

55

Flatulence, cramps and diarrhea after ingestion of dairy products

Lactose intolerance

56

Chronic hemolytic anemia, most common enzyme defect in glycolysis

Pyruvate kinase deficiency

57

These antibiotics bind to the 50S subunit and inhibit translocation

Clindamycin and macrolides
(Erythromycin, Azithromycin)

58

These antibiotic prevents binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the A site

Tetracycline

59

This antibiotic inhibits prokaryotic peptidyltransferase and peptide bond formation

Chloramphenicol

60

This antimycobacterial drug inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase

Rifampicin

61

Toxicity from this antimycobaterial drug may be alleviated by administration of vitamin B6

Isoniazid

62

This antineoplastic drug inhibits thymidylate synthase and causes thymine-less cell death

5-Flouriuracil

63

These antibiotics interfere with bacterial DNA synthesis by inhibiting topoisomerase type II

Flouroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin)

64

This antibiotic interferes with bacterial DNA synthesis by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase

Trimethoprim (co-trimoxazole)

65

Inhibits xanthine oxidase, used in the treatment of gout

Allopurinol

66

Inhibits HMG CoA reductase, used in the treatment of Hypercholesterolemia

Statins

67

Anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit phospholipase A2 and decrease the production of arachnidonic acid

Steroids

68

These drugs decrease inflammation by reversibly inhibiting cyclooxygenase

NSAIDS

69

These drugs decrease inflammation by selectively inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2

Celecoxib, Etoricoxib

70

This drug irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase

Aspirin

71

This drug decreases inflammation in asthma by inhibiting lipooxygenase

Zileuton

72

These drugs are useful in asthma because they inhibit leukotriene receptors

Montelukast

73

This prostaglandin is useful in impotence and in keeping the ductus arteriosus patent

PGE1 (Alprostadil)

74

Oral antidiabetic drugs that reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting the conversion of complex starches, oligosaccharides, and disaccharides into monosaccharides

a-Glucosidase inhibitors

75

These antibiotics interfere with bacterial DNA synthesis by competitively inhibiting dihydropteroate synthase

Sulfonamides

76

Conversion of proinsulin to insulin

Post-translational

77

Hydroxylation of collagen

Post-translational

78

Removal of introns

Post-transcriptional

79

Methylguanosine cap

Post-transcriptional

80

Give the codon coding for methionine

AUG

81

Give the 3 stop codon

UGA, UAA, UAG

82

Incoming aminoacyl tRNA

A site

83

Growing peptide chain

P site

84

Empty tRNA

E site

85

Codon always code for theme amino acid

Specific

86

Given amino acid may have more than one codon coding for it

Degenerate

87

Conversed from every early stages of evolution

Universal

88

mRNA processing and gene regulation

snRNA

89

3'-CCA sequence

tRNA

90

Poly-A tail

mRNA

91

Presence of unusual bases

tRNA

92

Carries genetic information from nuclear DNA to the cytosol

mRNA

93

Seals the nick between Okazaki fragments

Ligase

94

Excision of primers

DNA polymerase I

95

Elongation of leading strand

DNA polymerase III

96

maintains the separation of the parental strand

SS-DNA Binding Protein

97

Synthesis of RNA primer

Primase

98

Identifies origin of replication

DNA A protein

99

Removes superocoils

Topoisomerase

100

Unwinds double helix

Helikase

101

Sigma factor

Transcription

102

Lac Operon

Transcription

103

Shine Dalgarno sequence

Translation

104

Hogness box

Transcription, Eukaryotic

105

Pribnow box

Transcription, Prokaryotic

106

RNA to DNA

Reverse Transcription

107

DNA to DNA

Replication

108

RNA to protein

Translation

109

DNA to RNA

Transcription

110

More susceptible to hydrolysis

RNA

111

Usually double stranded

DNA

112

Uracil

RNA

113

Chargaff's rules

DNA

114

Which enzymes convert AMP to ADP and GMP to GDP?

Monophosphate Kinase

115

What enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides?

Ribonucleotide Reductase

116

What is the parent pyramidine?

OMP

117

What is the parent purine?

IMP

118

Ring can be opened and degraded to highly soluble structures

Pyramidine

119

Cytosine, uracil, thymine

Pyrimidine

120

Adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine

Purine

121

Ring is constructed on a performed ribose 5-phosphate

Purine

122

APRT and HGPRT for salvage pathway

Purine

123

PRPP is donor of ribose 5-phosphate

Purine and pyrimidine

124

Inorganic substance of bones and teeth

Fluorine

125

Thyroid hormone synthesis

Iodine

126

Cytochrome oxidase, dopamine b-hydroxylase, monoamine oxidase, tyrosinase

Copper

127

Carbonic anhydrase, alcohol dehydrogenase, DNA and RNA polymerase

Zinc

128

Glutathione peroxidase

Selenium

129

Anemia and hemochromatosis

Iron

130

Conversion of propionyl CoA to glucose

Biotin; Vitamin B12

131

Increase iron absorption

Vitamin C

132

Anencephaly and spina bifida

Folic acid

133

Deficiency may result in hemolysis

Vitamin E

134

Teratogenic

Vitamin A

135

Retrieval of glucose residues from glycogen

Vitamin B6

136

Megaloblastic anemia

Vitamin B12/Folic acid

137

Co-factor for acyl transfers and component of fatty acid synthase

Vitamin B5

138

Diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis

Vitamin B3

139

Carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in coagulation factors

Vitamin K

140

All aminotranferases

Vitamin B6

141

Condensation of glycine and succinyl CoA

Vitamin B6

142

Hartnup disease

Vitamin B3

143

Hydroxylation of collagen

Vitamin C

144

Acetyl CoA to Malonyl CoA

Biotin

145

Normalizes calcium levels in response to hypocalcemia

Vitamin D

146

Prevents atherosclerotic plaque formation

Vitamin E

147

Transketolase reactions in the HMP shunt

Vitamin B1

148

Phosphorylation glycogen synthase

Inhibited

149

High cAMP HMG CoA synthase

Activated

150

High epinephrine HMG CoA reductase

Inhibited

151

Low glucagon
Pyruvate kinase

Activated

152

High insulin
Glucose 6-phosphatase

Inhibited

153

Oligosaccharide in blood type B

Galactose

154

Determines charge selectiveness of renal glomerulus

Heparan sulfate

155

Attracts water into the ECM

Hyaluronic acid

156

Oligosaccharide in blood type A

N-Acetylgalactosaminase

157

Immunologic molecules

Immunoglobulins

158

Transport molecules

Transferrin

159

Lubricant and protective agent

Mucin

160

Located at sites of calcification of endochondral bone

Chondroitan sulfate

161

Important anticoagulant

Heparin

162

Lysine

Ketogenic

163

Purely glucogenic

Valine

164

Tyrosine

Glucogenic and Ketogenic

165

Pyruvate

Alanine

166

a-ketoglutarate

Glutamate

167

Oxaloacetate

Aspartate

168

Which 3 compounds are the immediate donors of the atoms of urea?

Free ammonia
Aspartate
Carbon dioxide

169

Through this enzyme, glutamine is delaminates to glutamate in the kidneys and intestines

Glutaminase

170

Through this enzyme, glutamine is synthesized from glutamate and ammonia

Glutamine synthase

171

Through this enzyme, glutamate is oxidatively deaminated to liberate free ammonia

Glutamate dehydrogenase

172

Through this enzyme, amino acids transfer their amino groups to glutamate

Aminotranferases

173

Give 3 compounds in which organisms excrete excess nitrogen

Ammonia
Uric acid
Urea

174

Malignancy

Negative nitrogen balance

175

Pregnancy

Positive nitrogen balance

176

Tendon, fascia, bone

Type I collagen

177

Nucleus purposus, vitreous body and cartilage

Type II

178

Most common type of collagen

Type I collagen

179

Basement membrane

Type IV collagen

180

Granulation tissue

Type III

181

Reticulin, blood vessels

Type III collagen

182

Y-tetramers in the newborn

Hemoglobin Barrts

183

Tetramers consisting of two a-chains and y-chains

Fetal hemoglobin

184

Carbon dioxide bound to hemoglobin for transport in the blood

Carbaminohemoglobin

185

Carbon monoxide binds tightly but reversibly to the hemoglobin iron

Carboxyhemoglobin

186

Oxidation of the heme component of hemoglobin to Fe3+, which cannot bind oxygen

Methemyoglobin

187

Non-enzymatic addition of glucose to hemoglobin, used to determine level of control of diabetes mellitus

HBA1C

188

Hemoglobin without any oxygen molecule bound to it

T form (T4)

189

Hemoglobin bound to 4 oxygen molecules

R form

190

Most abundant form in adults

Hemoglobin A (a-a-b-b)

191

Binds four molecules of oxygen at a time

Binding of oxygen is affected by changes in pH and CO2 concentration

Exists in taut and relaxed form

Sigmoidal oxygen dissociation curve

Hemoglobin

192

Reservoir of oxygen

Found in heart and skeletal muscle

Only exhibits tertiary structure

Myoglobin

193

Contains heme

Hemoglobin and myoglobin

194

Domains

Determine whether protein is globular or fibrous

Tertiary structure

195

Edman's reagent

Sequence of amino acids

Primary structure

196

More than one polypeptide

Quarternary structure

197

Beta pleated sheet

Secondary structure

198

Precursor of homocysteine

Methionine

199

Precursor of glutathione

Precursor of GABA

Glutamate

200

Precursor of tyrosine

Phenylalanine

201

Precursor of thyroid hormones

Precursor of catecholamines

Precursor of melanin

Tyrosine

202

Precursor of histamine

Diagnosis of Folic acid deficiency

Plays a role in oxygen binding to hemoglobin and myoglobin

Histidine

203

Precursor of melatonin

Precursor of serotonin

Precursor of niacin

Largest side chain

Tryptophan

204

Precursor of nitric oxide

Arginine

205

Hemoglobin synthesis

Smallest side chain

Glycine

206

Nutritionally essential amino acids

PVT TIM HALL

207

Transfer of methylgroups as SAM

Methionine

208

Causes kinks in collagen

Proline (Imino acid)

209

Basic amino acids

Histidine, Arginine, Lysin

210

Acidic amino acid

Aspartate and Glutamate

211

Important constituent of myelin

Sphingomyelin

212

Reservoir for arachnidonic acid in the membranes and precursor for IP3 and DAG

Phosphatidylinositol

213

Only glycerophospholipid that is antigenic

Cardiolipin

214

Major component of lung surfactant

Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

215

Degradation of TAG remaining in IDL

Hepatic Tag Lipase

216

Degradation of dietary TAG in small intestine

Pancreatic Lipase

217

Degradation of TAG stored in adipocytes

Hormone Sensitive Lipase

218

Activates LCAT to produce cholesteryl esters in HDL

Apo A-1

219

Binds to LDL receptor and mediates VLDL secretion

Apo B-100

220

Mediates uptake of chylomicron remnant

Apo-E

221

Activates lipoprotein lipase

Apo C-II

222

Mediates chylomicron secretion

Apo B-48

223

Highest cholesterol content

Delivers cholesterol into cells

LDL

224

Highest protein content

Shuttles apo C-II and apo E in the blood

Reverse cholesterol transport

HDL

225

Highest triglyceride content

Transport dietary triglyceride and cholesterol from intestine to tissues

Chylomicron

226

Protein moiety of lipoproteins

Apoproteins

227

Spherical macromolecular complexes composed of a neutral lipid core surrounded by a shell of amphipathic lipoproteins, phospholipid and monesterified cholesterol

Lipoprotein

228

Clinical manifestation of lipid malabsorption

Steatorrhea

229

Give 2 secondary bile acids

Lithocholic acid

Deoxycholic acid

230

Give 2 molecules conjugated to bile acids to convert them to bile salts

Taurine, Glycine

231

Give 2 primary bile acids

Cholic acid

Chenodeoxycholic acid

232

Enumerate 3 organs that can use ketones as fuel source

Muscle, renal cortex, brain in prolonged fast

233

Enumerate 3 ketone bodies

Acetoacetate, B-hydroxybutarate acetone

234

3-carbon compound that is a product of the oxidation of odd-numbered fatty acids

Propionyl CoA

235

End product of fatty acid synthesis

Palmitic acid

236

Immediate precursor of prostaglandins

Linoleic and Linolenic

237

Fatty acids associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis

Trans-fatty acids and saturated fatty acids

238

Long chain of carboxylic acid with two or more double bones

Polyunsaturated

239

Long chain of carboxylic acid with one double bond

Monounsaturated fatty acid

240

Longer chain of carboxylic acid with no double bond

Saturated fatty acid

241

Cleaves a(1-4) and a(1-6) bonds to produce free glucose

Debranching enzyme

242

Cleaves a(1-4) bonds to produce glucose 1P

Glycogen phosphorylase

243

Transfer 5-8 glucosyl residues and creates a(1-6) linkages

Branching enzyme

244

Creates a(1-4) linkages and elongates the glycogen chains

Glycogen synthase

245

Succinate dehydrogenase

FADH2

246

Malate dehydrogenase

NADH

247

a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase

NADH and Co2

248

Succinate thiokinase

GTP

249

Acetyl CoA to Palmitate

NADPH

250

Succinate to fumarate

FAD

251

Pyruvate to acetyl CoA

NAD+FAD (plus 3 others)

252

Isocitrate to a-ketoglutarate

NAD+

253

Pyruvate to lactate

NADH

254

Alanine

Alanine aminotransferase

255

Ethanol

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

256

Oxaloacetate

Pyruvate carboxylase

257

Lactate

Lactate dehydrogenase

258

Acetyl CoA

Pyruvate dehydrogenase

259

High Vmax

Glucokinase

260

Low Km

Hexokinase

261

Phosphorylates glucose and other hexoses

Glucokinase and Hexokinase

262

Present in liver parenchymal cells and islet cells of the pancreas

Glucokinase

263

ATP required to create 1 molecule of urea

3 ATPs but 4 high energy bonds

264

ATPs produced from complete oxidation of palmitate

129

265

ATPs produced from complete oxidation of glucose

36 or 38

266

ATPs produced from each molecule of NADH in TCA

3 (complex I)

267

ATPs produced from each molecule of FADH2 in TCA

2 (complex II)

268

ATPs produced from aerobic glycolysis

6 or 8

269

ATPs produced from anaerobic glycolysis

2

270

Transport of cytosolic palmitoyl-CoA into the mitochondria for beta oxidation

Carnitine shuttle

271

Transport of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA into the cytoplasm to produces 16-carbon fatty acid

Citrate shuttle

272

Transport of cytosolic NADH to the inner mitochondrial membrane, present in liver, kidney and heart

Malate-Aspartate shuttle

273

Transport of cytosolic NADH to the inner mitochondrial membrane, present in muscle and brain

Glycerophosphate shuttle

274

Heme synthesis

Mitochondrial cytoplasm

275

Oxidation of very long chain fatty acids

Peroxisome

276

Degradation of glycogen by acid maltase

Lysosomes

277

Beta oxidation

TCA cycle

Mitochondria

278

Fatty acid synthesis

Hexose monophosphate shunt

Glycolysis

Cytoplasm

279

Gluconeogenesis

Mitochondria and cytoplasm

280

Electron transport chain

Inner mitochondrial membrane

281

Hexoses monophosphate shunt

Liver, adipose tissue, adrenal cortex, thyroid, testes, RBC, lactating mammaries

282

Electron transport chain

All cells with mitochondria and sufficient oxygen

283

Urea cycle

Liver

284

Ketogenesis

Liver

285

Gluconeogenesis

Liver and kidney

286

Liver and muscle

Glycogen synthesis

287

Glycolysis

All cells

288

Rate-limiting enzyme: DE NOVO PYRIMIDINE STNTHESIS

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II

289

Rate-limiting enzyme: DE NOVO PURINE SYNTHESIS

GLUTAMINE PRPP AMINOTRANSFERASES

290

Rate-limiting enzyme: HEME SYNTHESIS

ALA synthase

291

Rate-limiting enzyme: UREA CYCLE

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I

292

Rate-limiting enzyme: STEROID HORMONE SYNTHESIS

Desmolase

293

Rate-limiting enzyme: BILE ACID SYNTHESIS

Cholesterol 7 a-hydroxylase

294

Rate-limiting enzyme: CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS

HMG CoA synthase

295

Rate-limiting enzyme: lipolysis (b-oxidation)

Carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (or Carnitine Acyl transferase I)

296

Rate-limiting enzyme: lipogenesis

Acetyl CoA carboxylase

297

Rate-limiting enzyme: TCA cycle

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

298

Rate-limiting enzyme: hexose monophosphate shunt

Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase

299

Rate-limiting enzyme: glycogenesis

Glycogen synthase

300

Rate-limiting enzyme: gluconeogenesis

Fructose 1,6-biphosphatase

301

Rate-limiting enzyme: glycolysis

Phosphofructokinase-I (PRK-I)

302

Conversion of pyruvate to alanine

Anabolic

303

Embden-Meyerhof pathway

Catabolic

304

Beta-oxidation

catabolic

305

Krebs cycle

Amphibolic

306

Glylcogenesis

Anabolic

307

Reduced coenzymes NADH and FADH2 each donate a pair of electrons to a specialized set of electron carriers

ETC

308

Final common pathway for the aerobic oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

Tricaboxylic acid cycle (Krebs cycle)

309

Produces NADapH, ribose 5P and provides a mechanism for metabolic use of 5C sugars

PPP (Hexose monophosphate shunt)

310

Retrieval of glucose from its storage form

Glycogenolysis (fasting state)

311

Synthesis of storage form of carbohydrates from UDP-glucose

Glycogenesis

312

Production of glucose from precursors such as lactate, glycerol, glucogenic amino acids, intermediates of glycolysis and TCA cycle

Gluconeogenesis

313

Conversion of glucose to 2 molecules of either pyruvate or lactate

Glycolysis

314

Brain, kidney, placenta

Glut-3

315

Adipose tissue, skeletal and cardia muscle

Glut-4

316

Absorption of fructose in small intestine by facilitated diffusion

Glut-5

317

Liver and pancreas

Glut-2

318

Brain and RBC

Glut-1

319

Requires insulin

Glut-4

320

D-galactose and L-galactose

Enantiomers

321

Glucose and mannose

Epimers

322

Galactose and mannose

Isomers

323

a-D-fructose and B-D-fructose

Anomers

324

Glycogen

Polysaccharide

325

Sorbitol

Monosaccharide

326

Lactose

Disaccharide

327

Cellulose

Polysaccharide

328

Mannose

Monosaccharide

329

Maltose

Disaccharide

330

Dimercaprol

Complex III inhibitor

331

Carbon monoxide

Complex IV

332

Oligomycin

Direct inhibition of ATP synthase
Complex V

333

Amytal

Complex I

334

Aspirin

Uncoupler

335

ATP production by oxidative phosphorylation

Complex V (ATP synthase)

336

Generation of proton gradient

Complexes I, III, and IV

337

Entry point for FADH2

Complex II

338

Entry point for NADH

Complex I

339

Only method of ATP production for RBCs

Substrate level phosphorylation

340

Requires oxygen

Oxidative phosphorylation

341

GTP from TCA

Substrate level phosphorylation

342

NADPH and FADH2 from TCA

Oxidative phosphorylation

343

Electron transport chain

Oxidative phosphorylation

344

Anaerobic glycolysis

Substrate level phosphorylation

345

Rate of information of products is the same as rate of formation of reactants

Zero

346

Spontaneous reaction

Negative

347

Endothermic reaction

Not enough information

348

Energy of the products is less than the energy of the reactants

Negative

349

Endergonic reaction

Positive

350

Give the two ways in which your cells produce ATP

1. Oxidative phosphorylation
2. Substrate level phosphorylation

351

Free energy change under standard conditions (reactants and products at 1 mol/L)

Standard free energy change

352

Measure of heat releases or absorbed during a reaction

Enthalpy

353

Measure of randomness

Entropy

354

Measure of energy available to do work

Change in free energy

355

What is the formula for standard free energy?

^G = ^H - T^S

356

Simvastatin's effect on HMG-CoA reductase

Affinity of enzyme to the substrate is decreased

The structure of the inhibitor resembles the substrate

Competitive inhibition

357

Malathion's effect on acetylcholinesterase

The inhibitor and the substrate bind at different sites on the enzyme

Km does not change

Vmax is lowered

Non competitive inhibition

358

Maximal velocity of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

Vmax

359

Substrate concentration at which the reaction velocity is equal to 1/2 Vmax

Michaelis Constant

360

Insulin

Protein

361

Vitamin A

Lipid

362

Sorbitol

Carbohydrate

363

Inosine monophosphate

Nucleic acid

364

Palmitate

Lipid

365

Collagen

Protein

366

cAMP

Nucleic acid

367

Glycogen

Carbohydrates

368

pKa above 7

Base

369

pKa below 7

Acid

370

Donates protons

Acid

371

Accepts H+ ions

Base

372

Explains how the free energy generated by the transport of electrons by the ETC is used to produce ATP from ADP+Pi

Mitchell chemiosmotic hypothesis

373

This is a double reciprocal plot used to calculate Km and Vmax, as well as to determine the mechanism of action of enzyme inhibitors

Lineweaver-Burke plot

374

This equation describes how reaction velocity varies with substrate concentration

Michaelis-Menten Equation

375

This equation is used to calculate the concentration of a weak acid and it's conjugate base

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation

376

Between C-G and A-T base pairs on DNA

Hydrogen bond

377

Between nucleotides on a DNA strand

Phosphodiester bond

378

Between ribose and adenine in adenosine monophosphate

B-N Glycosidic bond

379

Between two cysteine residues in cystine

Disulfide bond

380

Between serine and alanine in a protein

Peptide bond

381

Between glycerol and it's fatty acids

Ester bond

382

Branching bond of glucosyl residues in glycogen

a(1-6) Glycosidic bond

383

Primary bond of glucosyl residues in glycogen

a(1-4) Glycosidic bond

384

Between glucose and galactose in lactose

Glycosidic bond

385

Between a water molecule and another polar compound

Hydrogen bond

386

pH at which the zwitterion is the predominant form of a chemical compound

Isoelectric pH

387

Chemical compound that has a total net charge of zero

Zwitterion

388

Any substance that resists a change in pH when protons are produced or consumed

Buffer

389

Negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration

pH

390

Used as a substitute for nitrogen in deep dives

Helium

391

Aldehydes or ketones that contain hydroxyl groups

CARBOHYDRATES

392

Saccharon

Sugar

393

Major product of digestion of carbohydrates

GLUCOSE

394

Role of glucose

Energy source

Metabolic fuel and intermediates

Structural framework of DNA and RNA

Structural elements of living things

Glycoconjugates serve as recognition sites of hormones, antigen specificity

Source of reducing equivalents (NADPH)

395

Classification of carbohydrates

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Oligosaccharides