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0

Contains DNA, histones & chromosomes

Has nucleolus

NUCLEUS

1

Powerhouse of the cell

Mitochondria

2

Involve in detoxification,lipid synthesis, lipid-soluble substances ---> water-soluble substances

SER or Agranular

3

For synthesis of proteins bound for the cell membrane, lysosomes, outside of the cell

RER

4

For synthesis of proteins bound for the cytoplasm and mitochondria

Free-floating ribosomes

5

For packaging, molecular tagging and synthesis of hyaluronic acid & chondroitin sulfate

Golgi Apparatus

6

Replenishes the cell membrane

May contain proenzymes, NTs

Secretory vesicles

7

For regression of tissues and AUTOLYSIS

suicide bags of the cells

Destroys FBs

Lysosomes

8

Degrades membrane-associated proteins

Not membrane bound

Proteosome

9

Contains oxidases, catalases

For detoxification

Peroxisome

10

SER & RER is abundant

Liver

11

Specialized SER in the skeletal muscles

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

12

Specialized RER in the neuron

Nissl substance

13

Only substance modified in the RER, not in Golgi

Collagen

14

Found in lysosome-bound proteins

Mannose 6-phosphate

15

Lipofuscin accumulates in this organelle

Lysosomes

16

Lysosomes &

Peroxisome origins

Golgi apparatus

SER

17

Motor protein causing transport from the cell body to the neural fibril

Kinesin

18

"Whip-like" movement on the cell surface found in the respiratory airways and Fallopian tubes

Ciliary movement

19

What is the common component of the protoplasm

Water

20

What is the common component of the cell membrane

Protein

21

The cell membrane is permeable to NON-POLAR molecules

True

22

Disk-shaped

For firm intercellular adhesion (eg epithelium)

Macula adherens

23

For communication (eg cardiac and smooth muscle cells)
Unitary smooth muscle

Gap junctions

24

Ring-shaped

Increases surface area contact

Zonula adherens

25

Reticular

Either "tight" (BBB, CD, terminal colon) or "leaky" (PCT, jejunum); divides cell into apical and basolateral borders

Zonula occludens

26

Functional unit of a gap junction

Connexon

27

Movement of substances in both apical side and basolateral side

Transcellular transport

28

Movement of substances through tight junctions

Paracellular transport

29

Clathrin

SNARE proteins

Endocytosis

Exocytosis

30

What's the most common compound on your body?

Water

31

What's the most common protein in your body?

Collagen

32

What's the most common amino acid in your body?

Glycine

33

Which of the following has a reflection coefficient closer to one?

Albumin

34

Passive, downhill, non-carrier-mediated

Gases, alcohol, steroid hormones

Simple diffusion

35

Passive, downhill, carrier-mediated

Glut-1,2,3,4,5

Facilitated diffusion

36

Active, uphill, carrier-mediated, uses ATP

Na-K-ATPase pump, proton pump

Primary active transport

37

Active, uphill, carrier-mediated, uses Na gradient

SGLT-1, SGLT-2, Na-K-2Cl

Secondary active transport

38

Example of IMPERMEANT solute

Glucose

39

Example of PERMEANT solute

UREA

40

Effective osmole used in the treatment of brain edema

Mannitol

41

Osmotic pressure from large molecules (protein)

Oncotic pressure

42

Weight of the volume of a solution divided by weight of equal volume of distilled (pure) water

Specific gravity

43

Stereospecificity, Saturation and Competition are hallmarks of carrier- or non-carrier mediated transport?

Carrier-Mediated Transport

44

Ca-ATPase pump in the cell membrane: PMCA Ca-ATPase in the SR & ER: SERCA. TRUE OR FALSE?

True

45

Osmoles per Liter of Water: osmolaRITY or osmolaLITY?

osmolaRITY

46

Normal osmolarity of both ECF & ICF (including CSF)?

300 mOsm/L

47

A RBC has an osmolarity of 300 mOsm/L. What will happen to the RBC if it's places in a solution of:
1. 300 mOsm/L Sucrose
2. 300 mOsm/L Urea

No change swell

48

Activates G-proteins: Guanine Nucleotide Exchange (GEFs), GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPS), regulation of protein signaling (RGS protein)

GEFs

49

EEG wave: relaxed

Alpha wave

50

EEG wave: alert ; REM sleep

Beta wave

51

EEG wave: deep sleep

Delta wave

52

Substance suspected to induce sleep

Muramyl peptide

53

Percentage of REM sleep in newborns

50%

54

Master clock

Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

55

Regulates master clock

Pineal gland

56

Detects movement of objects name low-frequency vibration; found in glabrous skin

Meissner's corpuscle

57

For continuous touch; grouped into Iggo Dome Receptors

Merkel's disks

58

Detects movement of objects in skin

Hair-end organ

59

For pressure; for heavy and prolonged touch; found in deep skin, internal tissues and joint capsules

Ruffini's end organ

60

For high-frequency vibration; onion-like in structure

Pacinian corpuscle

61

Retinal glial cells that maintain internal geometry

Mueller cells

62

Retinal output cells whose axons from the optic nerve

Ganglion cells

63

Interneurons that connect rods & cones;

Contrast detectors

Bipolar cells

64

Absorbs stray light and prevent them from scattering

Site of macular degeneration & retinal detachment

Pigment epithelium

65

The first and most powerful structure of the optical system

Cornea

66

Center of our central vision

Fovea

67

Enable the lens to change its shape

Zonula

68

Middle vascular layer of the eye

Uvea

69

Film of the eye

Retina

70

Area of the eyes with no sensory cells

Optic disk

71

First part of brain to receive visual input

Optic chiasm

72

Relay station of the virtual cortex

Lateral geniculate body

73

Keep images focused in the retina

Lens

74

Layer of blood vessel that supplies blood to the retina

Choroid

75

Where aqueous humor is produced

Ciliary body

76

In glaucoma, these structures are blocked

Canal of SCHLEMM

77

Voluntary

Most number of SR

No surface calcium channels

Skeletal muscle

78

Contains gap junctions

Contains surface Ca-ATPase and Na-Ca exchanger

Cardiac muscle

79

Uses MLCK, Calmodulim, Caldesmon

Contains surface Ca-ATPase and Na-Ca exchanger

No Sarcomeres, striations, troponin

Myosin-based regulation

Contains dense bodies, caveoli, rudimentary SR

Smooth muscle

80

Peak or tall T waves

Hyperkalemia

81

Prolonged QT interval

Hypocalcemia

82

Prolonged PR interval

Heart blocks

83

ST segment elevation

Q wave MI or STEMI

84

An increase venous return will increase the HEART RATE

Bainbridge reflex

85

An increase in venous return will increase the STROKE VOLUME

Frank-Starling mechanism

86

AV block that cause fainting in patients due to the initially suppressed state of the Purkinje fibers

Strokes-Adams Syndrome

87

Powerful systemic vasoconstriction that starts at a BP<60 and optimal at BP=15

CNS Ischemic Response

88

Hypertension

Irregular respiration and bradycardia due to activation of the CNS ischemic response and baroreceptor reflex

Cushion reaction/reflex

89

Atrial contraction (distal 3rd of diastole)

Contraction of ventricles (isovolumic contraction)

Venous blood going to the atrium (isovolumic relaxation)

A wave, C wave, V wave

90

Caused by attempted backflow of blood during isovolumic relaxation

Incisura/Dicrotic notch

91

Increased ventricular pressure but same ventricular volume

Isovolumic contraction

92

Decreases ventricular pressure but same ventricular volume

Isovolumic relaxation

93

Closure of AV valves

S1

94

Closure of semilunar valves

S2

95

Rapid ventricular filling (flow of blood from atrium to ventricles)

S3

96

Atrial contraction/atrial systole

S4

97

Control conduits

May rapidly dilate and constrict

A1-vasoconstricts

B2-vasodilates

Arterioles

98

Stressed volume

Highest pressure

Arteries

99

Large cross-sectional area

Endothelial cells only

Capillaries

100

Capacitance vessels, 64% of blood found here! with one-way valves

Veins

101

Drains proteins and fluids from the interstitium, carries chylomicrons and involved in immunity and cancer

Lymphatic vessels

102

Forced exerted by blood against the blood vessel wall

Blood pressure

103

Amount of blood pumped by the heart per unit of time

Cardiac output

104

Amount of blood pumped per heart beat

Systolic volume

105

Pressure at the level of arteries and arterioles that opposes blood coming out of the heart

TPR/SVR
Total peripheral resistance/systemic vascular resistance

106

Number of heartbeats per minute

Heart rate

107

Amount of blood in the ventricle immediately before systole

End diastolic volume

108

Amount of blood in the ventricle immediately before diastole

End systolic volume

109

Ventricular contraction

Systole

110

Ventricular relaxation

Diastole

111

Low volume end diastolic volume

Preload

112

Aortic pressure

Afterload

113

Systole-Diastole

Pulse pressure

114

Right atrial pressure = 0mmHg

CVP

Central venous pressure

115

2/3 diastole + 1/3 systole

MAP

Mean arterial pressure

116

Used to estimate L arterial pressure

PCWP

Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

117

Changes in HR

Chronotrope

118

Changes in cardiac contractility

Into rope

119

Changes in conduction velocity

Dromotrope

120

Changes in rate of relaxation

Lusitrope

121

Workhouse of the nephron

Proximal convoluted tubule

122

Impermeable to water

Ascending limb

123

Impermeable to solutes

Descending limb

124

Site of aldosterone action

Distal tubule

125

Site of ADH action

Collecting duct

126

Countercurrent multiplier

Creates the gradient

Loop of Henle

127

Countercurrent exchanger

Preserves the gradient

Vasa recta

128

What are the 3 urinary buffers?

NaHCO3
NaHPO4
NH4

129

Insulin, aldosterone, B-adrenergic stimulation, alkalosis

Potassium influx

130

Insulin deficiency, Addison's disease, B-adrenergic blockage, acidosis, cell lysis, strenuous exercise, increase ECF osmolarity

Potassium efflux

131

Effect on GFR in afferent vasodilation

Increases

132

Effect on GFR in moderate efferent vasoconstriction

Increases

133

Effect on GFR in afferent vasoconstriction, efferent vasodilation, severe efferent vasoconstriction

Decreases

134

What is the formula for Reynold's Number?

RN= (diameter) (velocity) (density) / (viscosity)

135

What is the significance of a high Reynold's number?

Higher possibility of turbulence

136

What would happen to the Reynold's number if there is decreased blood viscosity or increased blood velocity?

Increase

137

What coronary artery is most susceptible to atherosclerosis?

LAD

138

Vif that occurs after blunt trauma to the heart immediately before the peak of the T wave

Commotio Cordis

139

What is the effect of endurance training and strength exercises on LV volume and LV wall thickness?

Endurance training: increase LV volume alone

Strength exercises: increase LV wall thickness alone

140

Reservoir of blood in the circulatory system

Has greater capacitance/compliance

Veins

141

What is the hormone that counteracts the effect of aldosterone and ADH?

ANP
Atrial natriuretic peptide

142

The plateau in cardiac action potential is found in what phase?

Phase 2

143

Most potent vasoconstrictor

ADH

144

Substance involved in vasodilator theory (Metabolic theory)

Adenosine

145

Vasoconstrictor, involved in migraine

Serotonin

146

Responsible for angiogenesis

VEGF

147

Vasoconstrictor; released by damaged endothelium

Endothelin

148

Arteriolar dilation, venous constriction

Bradykinin, Histamine

149

Counteracts TXA2

PGI2

150

What causes phase 2 in cardiac action potential?

What causes depolarization in SA node action potential?

Calcium influx

151

Which Na+ channel accounts for SA node automaticity?

If channels (slow "funny" Na channels)

152

Fastest conduction velocity

Bundle of His

153

Conduction velocity is dependent on

Size of inward current

154

What is the normal Ejection fraction?

55% (EF=SV/EDV)

155

Local control of blood flow

Metabolic hypothesis

156

First two events in hemostasis

Vasoconstriction

Formation of platelet plug

157

Last two events in hemostasis

Blood coagulation

Resolution

158

Lyses Fibrin

Plasmin

159

Vit K dependent clotting factors

Factor X, IX, VII, II, Protein C and S

160

Responsible for platelet ADHESION

vWF, Gp 1b

161

Responsible for AGGREGATION

Fibrinogen, Gp IIb-IIIa

162

Initiates EXTRINSIC pathway

Tissue factor (Factor III)

163

Initiates INTRINSIC pathway

Hagemann Factor (Factor XII)

164

Which substance is released due to shear stress on endothelial cells and dilates upstream blood vessels?

EDRF/NO
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor/ nitric oxide

165

Which prostaglandins act as vasoconstrictors?

PGF, TXA2/PGA2

166

Which prostaglandins act as vasodilators?

PGE, PGI

167

4 causes of high-output cardiac failure

Beri-beri
AV fistula
Hyperthyroidism
Anemia

168

BP from sitting to standing position

TPR during exercise

Venous blood volume during hemorrhage

Decrease

169

HR from sitting to standing position

Increase

170

Sites of production of RBCs in order

Yolk sac/AGM (3rd week)
Liver (3 mos)
Spleen
Bone marrow

171

Substrates for heme synthesis

TCA intermediate succinyl CoA and amino acid glycine

172

"Constant load delivered to distal tubule"

Tubuloglomerular feedback

173

"Percentage of solute reabsorbed is held constant"

Glomerulotubular balance

174

In tubuloglomerular feedback, the substrate that VASOCONSTRICTS afferent arterioles

Adenosine

175

What is the renal threshold for glucose

200mg/dL

176

Which substances do not have transport maximum and renal threshold?

Sodium, and all passively transported solutes
(Chloride and urea)

177

Absorb Na and H2O and secrete K

Principal cells

178

Absorb K and secrete H

Intercalated cells (interstitial cells)

179

Secrete EPO

Peritubular capillaries

180

Detects changes in sodium concentration in the distal tubule

Macula Densa

181

Triggers for aldosterone secretion

Decreased ECF volume
Hyperkalemia

182

Increases gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity, lipolysis, blood amino acids

Also has anti-inflammatory effects and upregulates alpha-1 receptors on arterioles

Cortisol

183

What is the specific site of production of cortisol

Has the largest area of the adrenal cortex

Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex

184

Chronic high cortisol levels may cause diabetes and HPN

True

185

Addison's disease is due to high levels of aldosterone

False

186

21B hydroxylase deficiency causes virilization

True

187

Which substance is released due to shear stress on endothelial cells and dilates upstream blood vessels?

EDRF/NO
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor/ nitric oxide

188

Which prostaglandins act as vasoconstrictors?

PGF, TXA2/PGA2

189

Which prostaglandins act as vasodilators?

PGE, PGI

190

4 causes of high-output cardiac failure

Beri-beri
AV fistula
Hyperthyroidism
Anemia

191

BP from sitting to standing position

TPR during exercise

Venous blood volume during hemorrhage

Decrease

192

HR from sitting to standing position

Increase

193

Sites of production of RBCs in order

Yolk sac/AGM (3rd week)
Liver (3 mos)
Spleen
Bone marrow

194

Substrates for heme synthesis

TCA intermediate succinyl CoA and amino acid glycine

195

"Constant load delivered to distal tubule"

Tubuloglomerular feedback

196

"Percentage of solute reabsorbed is held constant"

Glomerulotubular balance

197

In tubuloglomerular feedback, the substrate that VASOCONSTRICTS afferent arterioles

Adenosine

198

What is the renal threshold for glucose

200mg/dL

199

Which substances do not have transport maximum and renal threshold?

Sodium, and all passively transported solutes
(Chloride and urea)

200

Absorb Na and H2O and secrete K

Principal cells

201

Absorb K and secrete H

Intercalated cells (interstitial cells)

202

Secrete EPO

Peritubular capillaries

203

Detects changes in sodium concentration in the distal tubule

Macula Densa

204

Triggers for aldosterone secretion

Decreased ECF volume
Hyperkalemia

205

Increases gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity, lipolysis, blood amino acids

Also has anti-inflammatory effects and upregulates alpha-1 receptors on arterioles

Cortisol

206

What is the specific site of production of cortisol

Has the largest area of the adrenal cortex

Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex

207

Chronic high cortisol levels may cause diabetes and HPN

True

208

Addison's disease is due to high levels of aldosterone

False

209

21B hydroxylase deficiency causes virilization

True

210

Which substance is released due to shear stress on endothelial cells and dilates upstream blood vessels?

EDRF/NO
Endothelium-derived relaxing factor/ nitric oxide

211

Which prostaglandins act as vasoconstrictors?

PGF, TXA2/PGA2

212

Which prostaglandins act as vasodilators?

PGE, PGI

213

4 causes of high-output cardiac failure

Beri-beri
AV fistula
Hyperthyroidism
Anemia

214

BP from sitting to standing position

TPR during exercise

Venous blood volume during hemorrhage

Decrease

215

HR from sitting to standing position

Increase

216

Sites of production of RBCs in order

Yolk sac/AGM (3rd week)
Liver (3 mos)
Spleen
Bone marrow

217

Substrates for heme synthesis

TCA intermediate succinyl CoA and amino acid glycine

218

"Constant load delivered to distal tubule"

Tubuloglomerular feedback

219

"Percentage of solute reabsorbed is held constant"

Glomerulotubular balance

220

In tubuloglomerular feedback, the substrate that VASOCONSTRICTS afferent arterioles

Adenosine

221

What is the renal threshold for glucose

200mg/dL

222

Which substances do not have transport maximum and renal threshold?

Sodium, and all passively transported solutes
(Chloride and urea)

223

Absorb Na and H2O and secrete K

Principal cells

224

Absorb K and secrete H

Intercalated cells (interstitial cells)

225

Secrete EPO

Peritubular capillaries

226

Detects changes in sodium concentration in the distal tubule

Macula Densa

227

Triggers for aldosterone secretion

Decreased ECF volume
Hyperkalemia

228

Increases gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity, lipolysis, blood amino acids

Also has anti-inflammatory effects and upregulates alpha-1 receptors on arterioles

Cortisol

229

What is the specific site of production of cortisol

Has the largest area of the adrenal cortex

Zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex

230

Chronic high cortisol levels may cause diabetes and HPN

True

231

Addison's disease is due to high levels of aldosterone

False

232

21B hydroxylase deficiency causes virilization

True

233

Which hormone is responsible for milk production

Prolactin

234

Which hormone is responsible for milk secretion

Oxytocin

235

Where is ADH synthesized, stored and secreted?

Synthesized in hypothalamus, stored and secreted in posterior pituitary

236

Where will you find your thyroglobulin?

Thyroid gland

237

Thyroid hormone predominant in the plasma

T4

238

93% TH

Half-life: more (6 days)

More affinity for binding plasma protein

Less to bind to nuclear receptor (10%)

4x slower (2 days)

T4

239

7% TH

Half-life: less (1 day)

Less affinity for binding plasma protein

More binding to nuclear receptor (90%)

4x faster (12hours)

T3

240

Skin ulcer, depressed immune response and hypo gonadal dwarfism

Zinc deficiency

241

Autosomal recessive disorder causing zinc deficiency leading to with dermatitis, diarrhea, alopecia

Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

242

Proximal half of the colon

Absorption

243

Location of the chemoreceptors trigger zone

Area postrema

244

Slow waves are generated by what type of pacemaker cells

Interstitial cells of Cajal

245

Enzyme converts pancreatic trypsinogen to trypsin

Enterokinase

246

Part of liver stores vitamins

Ito cells

247

Functional unit of the liver

Liver acinus model

248

4 basic layers of the GI tract

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis

Serosa

249

Layer NOT seen in the esophagus

Serosa

250

Stronger layer of the esophagus

Submucosa

251

3 layers of the stomach

Inner oblique

Middle circular

Outer longitudinal

252

Contraction of inner circular, outer longitudinal muscle layer

Auerbach's plexus

253

Contraction of muscularis mucosa

Meissner's plexus

254

Absent in Hirchsprung's disease

Both Auerbach's and Meissner's plexus

255

Most common symptom of decompression sickness

"Bends"

256

First symptom at 120 feet below sea level

Joviality

257

Effect of weightlessness on the bones

Loss of calcium and phosphate

258

Maximum positive at force before you lose consciousness

+6G

259

5 mechanisms for acclimatization too low PO2

Inc RR, polycythemia, inc diffusing capacity of O2, inc vascularity, inc ability of cell to use O2

260

Naturally acclimatized people have _ hearts, _ chest, _ body mass

Larger, larger, smaller

261

Promotes front of fetus, maternal insulin resistance, maternal lipolysis and is an index of placental well being

Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (HCS)

262

What is the strength per square centimeter of x-sec area for both men and women?

3-4 kg/cm2

263

During exercise, when is power maximal?

During the first 8-10 seconds

264

Energy system used in the first 10 seconds of an athletic event

Phosphagn energy system

265

Anaerobic energy system utilized for 1.3 - 1.6 mins in sports like tennis and soccer

Glycogen-lactic acid system

266

Energy system used in marathon and long distance swimming

Aerobic system

267

Cardiac reserve

400-600%

268

Acute effects of hypoxia begin at _ feet

12,000 feet

269

Seizures begin at _ feet

18,000 feet

270

Most powerful

Estradiol

271

Main hormone involved in the follicular phase

Estrogen

272

Initiates spermatogenesis

FSH

273

Absence of this hormone is responsive for the development of female external genitalia

Testosterone

274

How many degree Celsius cooler os the testes compared to the abdominal cavity

2 degrees Celsius cooler

275

Sperm formation

Seminiferous tubules

276

Sperm motility

Epididymis

277

Sperm storage

Vas deferens

278

Production of fructose, prostaglandin

Seminal vesicle

279

Contributes to semen alkalinity

Prostate gland

280

Supplies mucus

Bulbourethral
Urethral glands

281

Responsible for bone deposition

Osteoblast

282

Responsible for bone resorption; secretes lysosomal enzymes (for organic matrix), citric acid, lactic acid (both for calcium salts)

Osteoclast

283

Who among the ff is in negative calcium balance-pregnant women, children or post-op patients

Post-op patients

284

Hormone suspected to initiate puberty

Melatonin

285

First event in puberty

Testicular enlargement

Breast enlargement

286

Active form of vitamin D

1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol

287

What is the effect of testosterone on athletic performance?

Increases muscle size, muscle strength and aggression

288

Increases intestinal calcium absorption

Decreases calcium and phosphate excretion but increases urinary calcium

Calcium deposition at RDA levels

Calcium resorption if >RDA levels

Calcium and phosphate reabsorption (kidneys)

VITAMIN D

289

Decreases calcium excretion

Increase phosphate excretion

Calcium and phosphate resorption (BONES)

PTH