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Flashcards in PUGAD BIOCHEM Deck (36):
0

Has a nonpolar R group

Valine

1

Has a polar, uncharged R group

Cysteine

2

Has a nonpolar R group

Alanine

3

Has a negatively charge R group

Aspartic acid / Aspartate

4

The naturally occurring tranquilizer of the body is derived from this amino acid

Glutamic acid

5

Is the form of a molecule that has an equal number of positive and negative charges and thus is electrically neutral

Isoelectric species

6

Is the amino acid arrangement maintained by peptide bonds

Primary level

7

Are maintained by hydrogen bonds between at groups and other special bonds such as the disulfide bridge between cysteine

Tertiary and quarternary level

8

Are the two most commonly seen secondary level structures.

Alpha helix and beta helix

9

The stability of it arises primarily from hydrogen bonds formed between the oxygen of the peptide bond carbonyl and the hydrogen atom of the peptide bond nitrogen of the fourth residue down the polypeptide chain

Sheets derive much of their stability from hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen and amide hydrogen of peptide bonds

Alpha helix

10

The most visible effect of denaturation on proteins

Decreased solubility

11

Separates compounds based on their chemical properties and by extension their solubility

Paper chromatography

12

Separates on the basis of size

Gel-infiltration chromatography

13

Separates on the basis of their net charge

Ion-exchange chromatography

14

Takes advantage of the high affinity of many proteins for specific chemical groups

Affinity chromatography

15

This could be a limiting amino acid in an incomplete protein

Tryptophan

16

Oxidative deamination refers to the removal of an amine group.

Glutamate dehydrogenase

17

Catalyzes the reaction of glutamate and NH4+ to glutamine in the mitochondria

Glutamine synthetase

18

Catalyzes the reaction of glutamine to glutamate and NH4+

Glutaminase

19

L-amino acid oxidase is a class of oxidoreductase that reacts an L-amino acid to its 2-oxo form and NH4+

L-amino acid oxidase

20

Is found as a dimer in secretions mainly found on the surface of epithelial cells

IgA

21

Is a B-cell receptor associated with normal B cell development

IgD

22

Efficiently opsonizes pathogen for engulfment by phagocytes and activates the complement system

IgG

23

The first antibody in development and response because it is produced before B cells have undergone somatic hypermutation

IgM

24

Is bound by receptors on mast cells, causing antigen binding to release powerful chemical mediators involved in allergic responses

IgE

25

Classical pathway of complement activation

Is not specific to any one pathogen but rather constitutes a first line of defense

Innate immunity

26

This pathway can convert glucose to ascorbic acid

Catalyzes the conversion of glucose to glucuronic acid to ascorbic acid

Glucuronic acid/uronic pathway

27

Also known as the glycolysis pathway

Embden-Meyerhof pathway

28

A process that generates NADPH and penthouses

Pentose phosphate pathway / phosphogluconate

29

Is also known as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D because it has two hydroxy groups on carbon 1 and 25 by the enzyme calciol-25-hydroxylase in the liver and calcidiol-1-hydroxylase in the kidney

Activated VITAMIN D

30

Induces squamous metaplasia in the respiratory epithelium

Deficiency of vitamin A (retinoic acid)

31

This is a test for folic acid deficiency

Histidine load test

32

This vitamin functions as coenzyme in the major anaplerotic reaction of the body

Is a coenzyme active when covalently attached to a carboxylase, participating in carboxylation reactions

Biotin

33

Is the addition of a carboxylic acid group to a substrate such as in the formation of oxaloacetate by the carboxylation of pyruvate, catalyzed by pyruvate carboxylase

Carboxylation

34

Are those that form intermediates of metabolic pathway

Anaplerotic reactions

35

Has been shown to correlate the iron absorption

Vitamin B6 / Pyridoxine deficiency