Patho Flashcards Preview

PEARLS PEARLS PEARLS 📌📌 > Patho > Flashcards

Flashcards in Patho Deck (87):
0

Abnormally low white cell count

Leukopenia

1

Reduction in number of neutrophils in blood

Neutropenia

2

Clinically significant reduction in neutrophils wherein serious consequence of making individuals susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections

Agranulocytosis

SE: drugs of hyperthyroidism

3

Increase in number of white cells in blood

Leukocytosis

4

Inflammation of lymph nodes

Lymphadenitis
- most common TB

5

Neoplasms in bone marrow in which tumor cells are found in the peripheral blood

Leukemia

6

Malignant transformation of lymphoid cells residing primarily in lymphoid tissues, especially in the lymph nodes

Lymphoma

7

Low platelet, leukopenia, anemia

Pancytopenia

8

Characterized by increased marrow production of red cells, granulocytes, and platelets

Panmyelosis

9

ELEVATED PLATELET COUNT

Thrombocytosis (Iron Deficiency Anemia)

10

Platelet < 150,000

Thrombocytopenia

11

Increase in WBC count with left shift (eg, 80% bands) and high leukocyte alkaline phosphatase

Leukemoid reaction

12

Solid focus of leukemia outside the bone marrow

Chloroma

13

How do you differentiate leukemoid reaction from CML?

Leukemoid reaction has high leukocyte alkaline phosphatase. CML has very low leukocyte alkaline phosphatase

14

Types of Leukocytes

Neutropenia

Lymphocytes

Eosinophils

Monocytes

Basophils

15

MI
Stroke
Fracture

Neutropenia

16

Viral infections

Lymphocytes

17

Allergic reaction
Neoplasms
Collagen vascular disease
Asthma
Allergic
Parasites

Eosinophils

18

Chronic infections

Monocytes

19

CML
Mast cell degranulation

Basophils

20

Abnormal azurophilic (primary) granules

Toxic granules

Severe infection / Sepsis

21

Patches of dilated ER that appear as sky-blue cytoplasmic puddles

DOHLE BODIES

Severe infections

22

Distinctive needle-like azurophilic granules found in myeloblasts

AUER RODS

AML

23

Scattered macrophage with abundant wrinkled green blue cytoplasm

Sea-blue histiocytes

CML

24

Small lymphocytes disrupted in the process of making smears

SMUDGE CELLS

CLL

25

Large cells with multiple nuclei or single nucleus with multiple nuclear lobes (owl eyes)

REED-STERNBERG CELLS

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

26

Nuclear remnants are phagocytosed by interspersed macrophages (Burkitt cells) with abundant clear cytoplasm (lipid droplets)

STARRY SKY PATTERN

Burkitt's Lymphoma

27

Cells found in adult T-cell lymphoma which appear to have multilobated nuclei

CLOVER LEAF or FLOWER CELLS

Adult T-cell lymphoma

28

Destructive plasma cells tumors involving axial skeleton

PLASMACYTOMA

Multiple myeloma

29

Multiple nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and cytoplasmic droplets containing Ig

Bizarre multinucleated cells

Multiple myeloma

-anemia
-renal failure
-bone pain

30

Fiery red cytoplasm

FLAME CELLS

Multiple myeloma

31

Pink globular cytoplasmic inclusions

RUSSELL BODIES

Multiple myeloma

32

Blue globular nuclear inclusions

DUTCHER BODIES

Multiple myeloma

33

M proteins causes RBCs in PBS to stick in linear arrays "coin stacked"

ROULEAUX CONFORMATION

Multiple myeloma

34

Erythroblasts with iron-laden mitochondria visible as perinuclear granules

Ringed Sideroblasts

Sideroblastic anemia
INH, lead, copper poisoning
Multiple myeloma
RA
B6 deficiency

35

Neutrophils with only two nuclear lobes

PSEUDO-PELGER-HUET CELLS

MDS

36

Megakaryocytes with single nuclear lobes or multiple separate nuclei

PAWN BALL MEGAKARYOCYTES

MDS

37

Premature release of nucleated erythroid and early granulocyte progenitors

Leukoerythroblastosis

Primary Myelofibrosis

38

Cells that were probably damaged during the birthing process in the fibrotic marrow

TEARDROP CELLS or DACRYOCYTES

Primary Myelofibrosis

39

Pentalaminar tubules, often with a dilated terminal end (tennis racket-like appearance)

BIRBECK GRANULES

Langerhans cells histiocytes

40

Small yellow-brown, brown or rust-colored foci in the spleen

GANDY-GAMMA NODULES

Splenic congestion

41

Condition that is caused by accumulation of microbes, cell debris and foreign material

Acute lymphadenitis

42

Non-tender swelling of lymph nodes which contains zones of proliferating blast-like B cell, B cells with cleaved/irregular nuclear contours and phagocytic macrophages containing the nuclear debris of B cells

Follicular Hyperplasia (Zone of Proliferation-B cells)

43

Non-tender swelling of lymph nodes which is usually due to EBV infection and some drugs such as phenytoin

Paracortical hyperplasia (T-cell proliferation)

44

Non-tender swelling of lymph nodes which is usually seen in breast cancers

Sinus Histiocytosis (monocytic proliferation)

45

9 year old male presents with fever without any sign of infection. On PE, note of mediastinal mass. BMA revealed hypercellular marrow packed with lymphoblasts

ALL

<13 years

46

Most common WBC malignancy in children
Has the best diagnosis
Most responsive to CHEMOTHERAPY
DOC: ASPARAGINASE

ALL

47

BMA showing hypercellular marrow packed with myeloblasts and AUER RODS

AML

13-40 yo

48

Has three phases
Philadelphia chromosome
Leukocytosis
Low alkaline phosphatase
Sea-Blue histiocytes

CML

40-60 yo

Tx: IMATINIB

49

Most common leukemia of adults and the elderly PBS shows smudge cells and nucleated red blood cells

CLL

>60

50

Mature B-cell tumor in the elderly where cells have fine hairlike projections (hairy cells)

Hairy cell leukemia

51

Most common type: lacunar variant RS cells : nodular sclerosis

Lymphocytes make up the vast majority of cellular infiltrate: MONONUCLEAR variant RS cells : LYMPHOCYTE RICH

Worst prognosis: lymphocyte depleted

BEST PROGNOSIS: lymphocyte rich

Relatively good prognosis: contains popcorn cells: lymphocyte predominant

Most commonly associated with EBV: Lymphocyte depleted

Has the highest count of Reed Sternberg cells: Mixed cellularity

Correlates with good prognosis in Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Lymphocytes in background

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

52

Most common form of NHL: diffuse large B-cell

Translocation of chromosome 8 which presents with starry sky pattern: Burkitt's lymphoma (C MYC)

Biopsy of this tumor reveals homogenous population of small lymphocytes, does not have centroblasts and proliferation centers: MANTLE CELL LYMPHOMA

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

53

Excess light or heavy chains along with complete Igs synthesized by neoplastic plasma cells

Bence-Jones Proteins (multiple myeloma)

54

Proliferative disorder of the dendritic cells which has BIRBECK granules "tennis racket"

Langerhans cell histiocytosis

55

Tumor of the thymus associated with myasthenia gravis and pure red cell aplasia

Thymoma

56

Most important monoclonal gammopathy usually presents as tumorous masses scattered throughout the skeletal system

Multiple myeloma

57

Reduction below normal limits of the total circulating red cell mass

Anemia

58

Average volume of a red cell expressed in femtoliters

Mean cell volume

59

Average content (mass) of hemoglobin per red red cell, expressed in pictograms

Mean cell hemoglobin

60

Average concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red cells, expressed in grams per deciliter

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

61

Coefficient of variation of red cell volume

Red cell distribution width (RDW)

62

Marked variation in RBC size

Anisocytosis

63

Marked variation in RBC shape

Poikilocytosis

64

Episodes of hypoxic injury and infarction

Vasoocclusive crisis

65

Massive entrapment of sickle cells leads to rapid splenic enlargement, hypovolemia and shock

Sequestration crisis

66

Infection of red cell progenitors by parvovirus B19

Aplastic crisis

67

Small hyperchromic RBC lacking central pallor

HP marker: SPHEROCYTES

Hereditary Spherocytosis

68

Small dark nuclear remnants present in RBCs of asplenic patients

HP marker: HOWELL JOLLY BODIES

Asplenia

69

Membrane-bound precipitates on denatured globin chains

HP marker: HEINZ BODIES

G6PD

70

RBCs with damaged membranes due to removal of Heinz bodies by splenic macrophages

HP marker: bite cells

G6PD

71

RBCs shaped like curved blades

HP marker: SICKLED CELLS

Sickle cell anemia

72

Dehydrated RBCs with bull's eye appearance

HP marker: TARGET CELLS (codocytes)

B thalassemia
Sickle cell anemia

73

Fragmented RBCs; also called helmet cells if cut in half

HP marker: schistocytes

RBC trauma
DIC
HUS

74

RBCs with spikes

HP marker: burst cells, ecchinocytes

Valve replacement

75

Pathology behind Sickle Cell anemia

Point mutation in 6th codon of B-globin (valine replaced glutamate)

76

Infection that may cause aplastic crisis in Sickle cell and HS?

Parvovirus B19

77

Pathology behind Alpha Thalassemia

Gene deletion

78

Pathology behind Beta thalassemia

Point mutation

79

Crew cut appearance, chipmunk facies

Sickle cell anemia thalassemia

80

Hemoglobinuria upon awakening

PNH

81

Choledochal cyst

Jaundice

Abdominal pain

Mass

82

Pheochromocytoma

Palpitations

Diaphoresis

Headache

83

Most common cause of hypothyroidism in iodine sufficient areas?

HASHIMOTO'S THYROIDITIS

84

Most common cause of hypothyroidism worldwide?

IODINE DEFICIENCY

85

Chronic inflammatory infiltrate of the thyroid gland with MULTINUCLEATED GIANT CELLS?

SUBACUTE GRANULOMATOUS THYROIDITIS (DE QUERVAIN)

86

Most common cause of PAINFUL thyroid gland

Associated with viral infection (COXSACKIE)

SUBACUTE GRANULOMATOUS THYROIDITIS