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Primary syphilis: reaches inguinal lymph nodes within hours, characteristic lesion is painless chancre

Secondary syphilis: characteristic lesion - condylomata lata, lymphadenopathy, malaise, anorexia

Tertiary syphilis: characteristic lesion - gummas, dorsal columns affected (tabes dorsalis), CNS involvement (demential paralytica), argyll-robertson pupil, aortitis due to invasion of vasa vasorum

Congenital syphilis: snuffles/saddle nose, mulberry molars, Hutchinson's triad (Hutchinson teeth, deafness, keratitis), sabre shins, rhagades (angle of mouth), Higoumenakis sign (clavicle), Clutton's joints (synovitis), pulmonary hemorrhage

Treponema pallidum

1

Trachoma: C. Trachomatis types A-C, chronic keratoconjunctivitis

Genital tract infections: C. Trachomatis types D-K, most common cause of STDs, associated with Reiter's syndrome

Late-onset neonatal pneumonia: C. Trachomatis types D-K, staccato cough

Lymphogranuloma venereum: C. Trachomatis types L1-L3, suppurative inguinal lymphadenitis (buboes), positive FREI test

Chlamydia trachomatis

2

UTI: most common cause of community acquired UTIs

Neonatal meningitis: 2nd most common cause

Traveler's diarrhea: causative agent: ETEC

HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME: causative strain - EHEC, E. coli 0157:H7; toxin- verotoxin (Shiga-like); triad- thrombocytopenia, anemia, renal failure; associated food- undercooked beef

Escherichia coli

3

Enterocolitis: causative strain: salmonella enteriditis; abdominal pain and nonbloody diarrhea

Typhoid fever: causative strain- salmonella typhi; W1-stepladder fever, relative bradycardia (pulse fever disproportion)
W2- rose spots, abdominal pain
W3- bleeding, eleitis
W4- death or recovery

Sepsis: causative strain- salmonella cholerasois, osteomyelitis in patients with sickle cell

Salmonella spp

4

Pruritis of scalp on trunk; nits seen on hair shaft

Pediculus humanus (lice)

5

Pruritis in pubic area; nits seen on hair shaft

Phthirus pubis (lice)

6

Pruritic, painful and erythematous nodule; larva may be seen emerging from nodule

Dermatitis hominis (flies)

7

Pruritic, erythematous wheal

Cimex lectularius (bedbugs)

8

Pruritic, erythematous papules, and linear tracks

Sarcoptes scabei (mites)

9

Ascending paralysis

Dermacentor (ticks)

10

Wading in floodwaters

Leptospira interrogans

11

Swimming in lakes

Naegleria fowleri

12

Unpasteurized milk

Listeria monocytogenes

13

AIDS

Cryptococcus neoformans

14

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt

Staphylococcus epidermidis

15

Head trauma

Otitis media

Streptococcus pneumoniae

16

Living in close quarters

Neisseria meningitidis

17

Unvaccinated children

Haemophilus influenzae

18

Prominent thick, gray, pseudomembranes over tonsils and throat

Complications: airway obstruction, myocarditis, cranial nerve and/or muscle paralysis

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

19

Tumbling motility

Early-onset neonatal listeriosis (granulomatosis infantiseptica)

Late-onset neonatal meningitis

Adult meningitis

Listeria monocytogenes

20

Toxin: tetanospasmin

Strong muscle spasm (spastic paralysis, tetany)

Lockjaw (trismus)

Risus sardonicus

Opisthotonos

Respiratory failure

Clostridium tetani

21

Gas gangrene (clostridial myenecrosis)
-pain, edema and cellulitis with crepitation
- hemolysis and jaundice are common (alpha toxin)

Clostridium perfringens

22

Bright red cheek rash (slapped cheeks)

Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)

ParvovirusB19

23

In children with sickle cell

Aplastic crisis

Parvovirus B19

24

2nd trimester: hydrops fetalis

Fetal infection

Parvovirus B19

25

Formation of cytoplasmic vacuole (koilocytes)

Human papilloma virus

26

Skin and plantar warts

HPV 1-4

27

Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata)

Most common viral STD

HPV-6 and 11

28

Carcinoma of cervix, penis and anus, vulva

HPV-16,18,31,33

29

Multinucleated giant cells on Tzanck smear

COWDRY type A bodies on brain biopsy

Herpes simplex virus

30

Gingivostomatitis, herpes labialis, keratoconjunctivitis, temporal lobe encephalitis, herpes whitlow (fingers), herpes gladiatorum (trunk)

HSV-1

31

Genital herpes

HSV-2

32

Replicates in motor neurons in anterior horm cells of spinal cord, causing paralysis

Poliovirus

33

Herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, hemorrhagic conjunctivitis

Coxsackie virus type A

34

Myocarditis and pericarditis

Most common cause of aseptic meningitis (most common cause is enterovirus)

Coxsackie virus type B

35

Centrifugal rash 2 weeks after respiratory infection (dewdrop on a rose appearance)

SHINGLES occurs during reactivation

Site of latency: dorsal root ganglion

Varicella zoster virus

36

Most common cause of congenital abnormalities

Congenital CMV infection

37

Heterophil-negative mononucleosis

CMV

Systemic CMV infections in immunocompromised patients

38

Kissing disease

Splenic rupture is a rare complication

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

39

Malignancies: Burkitt's lymphoma (Africans), B-cell lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Chinese), hairy leukoplakia in AIDS patients

EBV

40

Infective form: Dane particle

Necrotic hepatocytes (Councilmam bodies)

Cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

Associate with autoimmune vasculitides (polyarthritis nodosa)

Hepatitis B

41

No chronic carrier state
No cirrhosis
No hepatocellular carcinoma
High mortality in pregnant woman

Hepatitis E

42

Most common cause of nonbacterial diarrhea in adults

Norwalk virus (Norovirus)

43

Most common cause of childhood diarrhea

Rotavirus

44

Capable of undergoing antigenic shifts and drifts

Clinical presentation: fever, myalgias, headache, pharyngitis, and cough

Complications: staphylococcal pneumonia, Reye's syndrome

Influenza virus

45

HP: Warthin-Finkeldey bodies

Pathognomonic Koplik spots (brightn red lesions with a white, central dot on buccal mucosa

Maculopapular rash

Complications: encephalitis, pneumonia, subacute sclerosing, panencephalitis

Measles virus

46

Tender swelling of the parotid glands (parotitis)
Increase in pain when drinking citrus fruits

Complications: orchitis, meningitis

Mumps virus

47

Most important cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants

Severe disease in infants due to immunologic cross reaction with maternal antibodies

DOC: Ribovirin

Respiratory syncitial virus

48

Most prevalent blood-borne pathogen

Autoimmune reactions (thyroiditis, autoantibodies, MPGN, PCT, DM

Main cause of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia

Tx: Ribovirin

Hepatitis C

49

Posterior auricular LAD

Immune-complex polyarthritis in adults

German measles (rubella)

50

PDA, congenital cataracts, sensorineural deafness, mental retardation

Congenital rubella syndrome

51

Vector: aedes aegypti

Influenza like syndrome with maculopapular rash and severe pains in muscles and joints (breakbone fever)

Hemorrhagic shock due to cross-reacting antibody during 2nd dengue infection

Dengue virus

52

Animal reservoir: horseshoe bat

Atypical pneumonia rapidly progressing to ARDS

Virus binds to ACE-2 receptor

Chest x-ray: non cavitary "ground glass" infiltrates

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (Coronavirus)

53

HP: Negri bodies

Confusion, lethargy, hypersalivation, laryngospasm leads to hydrophobia

Invariably fatal when encephalitis develops

Rabies virus

54

Characterized by inspiratory stridor, cough and hoarseness

Laryngotracheobronchitis (croup)

Parainfluenza virus 1 & 2

55

Steeple X-ray sign

Stenosis on subglottic swelling

Parainfluenza 1 & 2

56

Infectious proteins route agents

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

Kuru - kuria/guria = to shake

Variant CJD (vCJD)

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS syndrome)

Fetal familial insomnia

Sporadic fatal insomnia

Prions

57

Characterized by inspiratory stridor, cough and hoarseness

Laryngotracheobronchitis (croup)

Parainfluenza virus 1 & 2

58

Steeple X-ray sign

Stenosis on subglottic swelling

Parainfluenza 1 & 2

59

Infectious proteins route agents

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

Kuru - kuria/guria = to shake

Variant CJD (vCJD)

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS syndrome)

Fetal familial insomnia

Sporadic fatal insomnia

Prions

60

Hypopigmented areas

Spaghetti and meatballs appearance on 10% KOH

Malassezia Furfur

61

Associated occupation: gardener

Sporothrix Schenckii

62

Lung infiltrates, adenopathy or effusions

Erythema nodosum (dessert bumps)

Arthralgias

Meningitis

Coccidioides immitis

63

Closely mimics TB
Chronic pneumonia
Erythema nodosum
Tongue ulcerations in AIDS patients

Histoplasma capsulatum

64

Dimorphic yeast
Chronic pneumonia
Ulcerated granulomas
Lytic bone lesions
Prostatis

Blastomyces dermatidis

65

Oral thrush
Vulvovaginitis (curd-like discharge)
Intertrigo
Skin infections (satellite lesions)
Onchomycosis
Esophagitis

Candida albicans

66

Primary infection: asymptomatic pneumonia
Meningitis
Encephalitis
India ink
Thick gelatinous lesion
Soap-bubble lesion in the meninges or Virchow-Robin spaces

Cryptococcus neoformans

67

Aspergilloma (fungus ball) lung cavities

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)

Aspergillus fumigatus

68

Mild disease: fever, muscle pain, periorbital edema, eosinophilia and hemorrhagic phenomena (subconjunctival, splinter)

Severe disease: myocarditis, encephalitis, pneumonia, respiratory myositis

Trichinella spiralis

69

Hypopigmented areas

Spaghetti and meatballs appearance on 10% KOH

Malassezia Furfur

70

Associated occupation: gardener

Sporothrix Schenckii

71

Lung infiltrates, adenopathy or effusions

Erythema nodosum (dessert bumps)

Arthralgias

Meningitis

Coccidioides immitis

72

Closely mimics TB
Chronic pneumonia
Erythema nodosum
Tongue ulcerations in AIDS patients

Histoplasma capsulatum

73

Dimorphic yeast
Chronic pneumonia
Ulcerated granulomas
Lytic bone lesions
Prostatis

Blastomyces dermatidis

74

Oral thrush
Vulvovaginitis (curd-like discharge)
Intertrigo
Skin infections (satellite lesions)
Onchomycosis
Esophagitis

Candida albicans

75

Primary infection: asymptomatic pneumonia
Meningitis
Encephalitis
India ink
Thick gelatinous lesion
Soap-bubble lesion in the meninges or Virchow-Robin spaces

Cryptococcus neoformans

76

Aspergilloma (fungus ball) lung cavities

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)

Aspergillus fumigatus

77

Hypopigmented areas

Spaghetti and meatballs appearance on 10% KOH

Malassezia Furfur

78

Associated occupation: gardener

Sporothrix Schenckii

79

Lung infiltrates, adenopathy or effusions

Erythema nodosum (dessert bumps)

Arthralgias

Meningitis

Coccidioides immitis

80

Closely mimics TB
Chronic pneumonia
Erythema nodosum
Tongue ulcerations in AIDS patients

Histoplasma capsulatum

81

Dimorphic yeast
Chronic pneumonia
Ulcerated granulomas
Lytic bone lesions
Prostatis

Blastomyces dermatidis

82

Oral thrush
Vulvovaginitis (curd-like discharge)
Intertrigo
Skin infections (satellite lesions)
Onchomycosis
Esophagitis

Candida albicans

83

Primary infection: asymptomatic pneumonia
Meningitis
Encephalitis
India ink
Thick gelatinous lesion
Soap-bubble lesion in the meninges or Virchow-Robin spaces

Cryptococcus neoformans

84

Aspergilloma (fungus ball) lung cavities

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)

Aspergillus fumigatus

85

Hypopigmented areas

Spaghetti and meatballs appearance on 10% KOH

Malassezia Furfur

86

Associated occupation: gardener

Sporothrix Schenckii

87

Lung infiltrates, adenopathy or effusions

Erythema nodosum (dessert bumps)

Arthralgias

Meningitis

Coccidioides immitis

88

Closely mimics TB
Chronic pneumonia
Erythema nodosum
Tongue ulcerations in AIDS patients

Histoplasma capsulatum

89

Dimorphic yeast
Chronic pneumonia
Ulcerated granulomas
Lytic bone lesions
Prostatis

Blastomyces dermatidis

90

Oral thrush
Vulvovaginitis (curd-like discharge)
Intertrigo
Skin infections (satellite lesions)
Onchomycosis
Esophagitis

Candida albicans

91

Primary infection: asymptomatic pneumonia
Meningitis
Encephalitis
India ink
Thick gelatinous lesion
Soap-bubble lesion in the meninges or Virchow-Robin spaces

Cryptococcus neoformans

92

Aspergilloma (fungus ball) lung cavities

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA)

Aspergillus fumigatus