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Flashcards in Biochemical Profile Deck (148)
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1

Does insulin increase or decrease blood glucose concentrations?

Decrease

2

Do glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone, ACTH, and cortisol increase or decrease glucose blood levels?

Increase

3

What is the function of insulin?

Drives glucose into cells to be metabolized into glycogen, amino acids, and fatty acids

4

What is the "classic" hyperglycemic disorder?

Diabetes mellitus

5

What is the normal fasting blood glucose range?

70-99 mg/dL

6

What is the range for FBG in a pre-diabetic?

100-125 mg/dL

7

What is the FBG measurement for a diabetic?

126 or greater mg/dL

8

What is the FBG measurement when considered "low"?

Below 70 mg/dL

9

Does an insulin overdose lead to hyper- or hypoglycemia?

Hypoglycemia (glucose goes into cells to be stored and glucose is decreased in the blood)

10

Which is associated with hyperglycemia: Cushing's syndrome or Addison's disease?

Cushing's syndrome

11

Which is associated with hypoglycemia: Cushing's syndrome or Addison's disease?

Addison's

12

What type of respiratory symptom is seen with Type I diabetes?

Kussmaul breathing (hyperventilation)

13

What are the common symptoms associated with diabetes?

Increased thirst (polydipsia), frequent urination (polyuria), fatigue, blurred vision

14

If diabetes mellitus is suspected, what testing should be done?

Glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and/or HgbA1c

15

How does a glucose tolerance test show a person has diabetes?

Glucose load isn't tolerated, and serum levels will be greatly elevated along with glucose spilling into the urine

16

At what time and serum level is a glucose tolerance test usually stopped?

2 hours with serum levels at less than 140 mg/dL (normal)

17

What are the serum levels with OGTT in a pre-diabetic at 2 hours?

140-199 mg/dL

18

What are the serum levels with OGTT in a diabetic at 2 hours?

Greater than 200 mg/dL

19

If your patient comes in with diabetic symptoms, what should be your next move?

Adjust subluxations, FBG test, UA

20

What is the HgbA1c test for?

Determines how well a patient's diabetes/blood sugar levels are being controlled

21

What is the normal range for the hemoglobin A1c test in a patient without diabetes?

4-6% (blood sugar average) but overall less than 5.7%

22

What should be the goal for a Hgb A1c test in a patient with diabetes?

Less than 7% (means lower likelihood of developing complications)

23

What is the range for the hemoglobin A1c test in a pre-diabetic patient?

5.7-6.4%

24

What is the range for the hemoglobin A1c test in a diabetic patient?

Greater than 6.5%

25

Are all diabetic patients aware of their disorder?

No; only about half

26

What confirms glycosuria?

Levels exceed the renal threshold values of 180mg

27

What type of diabetes is dependent on exogenous insulin to sustain life?

Type 1

28

Type 1 Diabetes involves the autoimmune destruction of which cells?

Pancreatic islet beta cells

29

What is the most common type of diabetes?

Type 2

30

Does gestational diabetes remain?

No; it goes away after delivery (but increased chance of developing DM later in the next 10-20 years)