Flashcards in Exam 1 - Urine Part 1 Deck (101)
What condition is most likely present when the clavicles are underdeveloped or absent on a film?
What lab test should be ordered if your patient presents with signs and symptoms of anemia?
Complete blood count (CBC)
What imaging should be ordered if you see an abdominal aortic aneurysm on X-ray?
Abdominal CT (size-depending)
What imaging should be done if a patient has a congenital absence of the posterior arch?
When OPLL is seen on X-ray, what does the patient then need?
CT/MRI and a neuro/ortho consult
What test should be ordered for a patient with DISH?
Fasting blood sugar (possible diabetic)
What test is needed for a patient with a kidney stone?
Increased levels of what enzyme in the blood are indicative of probable prostate cancer?
What kind of X-ray finding could appear on the vertebral bodies in a patient with increased levels of alkaline phosphatase?
Hemispherical sclerosis (blastic metastasis)
What imaging does a patient with signs and symptoms of pneumonia need?
What kind of test does a patient with burning urination and flank pain need?
What kind of test does a patient with pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen need?
Liver function tests (check enzymes)
What are the federal regulatory standards that apply to all clinical laboratory testing performed on humans in the United States, except clinical trials and basic research?
CLIA (clinical laboratory improvement amendements)
If a chiropractor chooses to do his lab work in his office, what standards must be met for legalities?
CLIA and OSHA standards
What percentage of cardiac output perfuse the kidneys every minute?
25% (a lot, guys)
What is the name of the hormone produced in the kidneys that stimulates RBC and renin production?
What are the 3 properties that make up a routine UA?
1 physical 2 chemical 3 microscopic
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
How many nephrons (approx.) are in 1 kidney?
What anatomy makes up a nephron?
Glomerulus, capillary network, proximal convoluted tubule, loops of Henle, distal tubule, collecting duct
What is the oldest clinical lab procedure?
What is the nickname for the ancient Sumarian, Babylonian, and Egyptian physicians that were highly skilled in urine examinations (aka urine gazers)?
The glomerular filtrate becomes urine after leaving what specific part of the nephron?
Distal convoluted tubule
What are the principle solutes of urine?
Urea, sodium, chloride, potassium, creatinine, uric acid, and ammonia
The body excretes approximately how many grams of dissolved material in 24 hours? Half of it is what substance?
60 grams; 50% = urea
What percentage of urine is water?
95% (rest are dissolved solids)
What is the normal range for daily volume of urine?
600-2000ml/day (average if 1200-1500ml/day)
What is the term for urine output of greater than 2000ml/day?
What are some potential causes of polyuria?
Diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, large fluid intake, diuretics