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1

What is the term for the study of blood and its formed elements?

Hematology

2

Plasma makes up what percentage of the total blood volume?

55% (formed elements - 45%)

3

What is the breakdown of erythrocytes vs WBC/platelets in the total blood volume?

44% = erythrocytes, 1% = WBC/platelets (remember formed elements = 45% total)

4

What protein is found in RBCs and functions to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from all the body tissues?

Hemoglobin

5

What is the purpose of platelets?

Prevent blood loss from hemorrhage

6

Where do we see the main effect of the platelets?

Blood vessel wall

7

What is the term for cellular formation, proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells?

Hematopoiesis

8

What are the hematopoietic tissues and organs?

Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, liver, reticuloendothelial system (RES)

9

Are all RBCs released into peripheral blood from their original organs?

Only mature cells

10

When does hematopoiesis begin in the fetus?

19th day of gestation

11

Where are blood cells manufactured in normal adults/

Marrow of the axial skeleton

12

Which hormone is responsible for stimulating the stem cells to differentiate and proliferate into RBCs?

Erythropoietin

13

Where is erythropoietin produced?

Kidneys

14

Where are erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets produced postnatally?

Bone marrow

15

Where are lymphocytes produced?

Secondary lymphoid organs: spleen, lymph nodes, intestinal lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, and thymus

16

What is the lifespan of a RBC?

120 days

17

What is the main function of a red blood cell?

Transport hemoglobin

18

What is the ratio of hemoglobin to water of a RBC?

90% hemoglobin, 10% water

19

When a patient is suspected of having an infection, what tests are commonly run and helpful to have done?

CBC and ESR

20

What levels are measured with a traditional CBC?

Hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC indices, WBCs, platelets

21

What is the term for lower than normal RBC count? Higher?

Lower = anemia, Higher = polycythemia

22

What is the adult male normal for RBC count?

4.5-6.0 million/mm(3)

23

What is the adult female normal for RBC count?

4.0-5.5 million/mm(3)

24

What is the normal child count for RBCs?

4.0-5.5 million/mm(3)

25

What is the normal adult male count for hemoglobin? Females?

Males = 13-18mg/dL, Females = 11-16 mg/dL

26

In general, what does a decreased hemoglobin count signify?

Decreased oxygenation of the tissues (tired, less energy)

27

What does hemoglobin do again?

Transports oxygen and CO2

28

What is the hematocrit a measurement of?

Percentage of total blood volume made up of RBCs (packed cell volume)

29

What is the adult male normal range for hematocrit? Female?

Male = 42-52%, Female - 37-47%

30

If a patient has a hematocrit of 47%, then what percentage of the total blood volume is made up of plasma?

53%