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1

Which cells in our body form the first line of defense from invading micro-organisms?

WBCs (leukocytes)

2

What distinguishes a WBC from a RBC?

WBCs have a nucleus

3

What are the two major groups of WBCs?

Granulocytes and agranulocytes

4

What types of WBCs are granulocytes?

Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

5

What types of WBCs are agranulocytes?

lymphocytes and monocytes

6

What is the term for the process by which WBCs differentiate and proliferate?

Leukopoiesis

7

Where does WBC differentiation and proliferation occur?

Bone marrow (except for lymphocytes which can take place in the thymus, as well)

8

Which type of WBC can also develop in the thymus as well as the bone marrow?

Lymphocytes

9

How long does it take to get from a blast stage of a WBC to a mature stage and enter peripheral blood?

14 days

10

What type of WBC functions in allergies, drug reactions, and parasitic reactions?

Eosinophils

11

Which WBC contains histamine and heparin and functions in immediate hypersensitivity reactions?

Basophils

12

Which WBC has the function to combat pyogenic infections?

Neutrophils

13

Which WBC functions to fight off viral infections?

Lymphocytes

14

What is the function of monocytes?

To help neutrophils

15

What is another term of neutrophilic leukocytosis?

Neutrophilia

16

What is diagnostic for leukopenia?

WBC count falling below 5,000

17

Is a fever with a high white blood cell count usually bacterial or viral?

Bacterial

18

Is a low to moderate fever with decreased WBCs usually bacterial or viral?

Viral (antibiotics do the same)

19

Which tend to be worse: bacterial or viral infections?

Bacterial

20

How many WBCs are counted by a tech to arrive at a differential?

100

21

What is the difference between a left and right shift when classifying white blood cells?

Right = more mature cells, Left = more immature cells like blasts and pros

22

What are segs?

Neutrophils (segmented cells)

23

What is the first line of defense for neutrophils?

Phagocytosis

24

Hyper segmented neutrophils are seen with what kind of anemia?

Megaloblastic

25

Increased bands means a WBC shift in which direction?

Left (seen with infections/inflammation)

26

What is the difference in function between B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes?

B = tag foreign bodies and antibody production; T = kill foreign bodies

27

What is the final maturation stage of B lymphocytes?

Plasma cell

28

Are the majority of lymphocytes long or short lived?

Long (as long as 10 years)

29

Which is responsible for humoral immunity: B or T lymphocytes? Cellular immunity?

Humoral = B; Cellular = T

30

Lymphophilia is more commonly due to what type of infection?

Viral