Biochemistry Flashcards Preview

Block 6 > Biochemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (76):
1

Energy intake and activity for a 1 year old? 6 year old? 10 year old?

1 year- 800 calorie
6 year- 1600 calories
10year- 2000 calories

2

What is based on the brain's glucose needs? When it is within the adult range?

carbohydrates, after 1 year of age

3

Fats and fatty acids are ___ % of energy for 1-3 years and ____% for 4-18 years.

30-40% for 1-3, 25-35% for 4-18

4

What increases with age and declines with body weight? What is an important factor?

Protein, nitrogen balance

5

Vitamins and minerals ___ with age (iron and vitamin D). You need ___ to ___ mg iron per day.

increases, 7-10

6

If you have iron deficiency or malnourishment, then ____ becomes much easier.

lead poisoning

7

What causes an immunologic response with a reaction that may be immediate or delayed?

a true food allergy

8

What causes symptoms without antibody production?

food intolerance

9

If one parent is obese, there is more than ___% chance the child would be obese. If neither parent is obese, there is less than ___% chance the child would be obese.

80%, 10%

10

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes? (3)

-obese (most important)
-sedentary
-family history

11

In obesity the LDL ___ while the HDL ____.

LDL increases, HDL decreases

12

A child on vegan diet since birth for a strong family history of heart disease. What impact might a vegan diet have on nutritional status and development of that child?

-deficiencies of protein, vitamin D, vitamin B12, iron, and calcium have been reported in infants fed vegan diets
-a strict vegan diet can significantly slow growth transitions from breast milk to solid foods

13

If a teen has at least one obese parent, what are the teen's chances of becoming an obese adult?

greater than 80%

14

What is the administration of complete and balanced nutrition by IV infusion in order to support anabolism, body weight, maintenance or gain, and nitrogen balance, when oral or enteral nutrition are not feasible or are inadequate?

total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

15

Cancer patients had a ___ nitrogen balance when receiving cacein hydrolysate in an infusion of glucose.

positive

-really sick patients had a negative nitrogen balance which implies you have a net breakdown of proteins in your body (catabolic process)
-a positive nitrogen balance is associated with protein growth (anabolic process)

16

What are the components of parenteral nutrition?

-energy (glucose, IV lipid emulsion)
-nitrogen (aa, of peptides)
-water
-mineral
-vitamins
-trace elements

17

Who is know for the development of the ICU?

Florence Nightingale

18

Renal continuous hemofiltration allowed for what 3 things?

-better management of renal failure
-allowed us to give fluids to those in renal failure
-removed any limitations on nutrition

19

Continuous hemofiltration allowed for the permitted feeding without limit in who?

critical patients

20

What can start in a person who has been without food for only five days?

refeeding syndrome!!!!

21

What is the biggest factor in refeeding? What things should we see in refeeding syndrome?

phosphate

-hypokalamia, hypomagnesaemia, hypophosphataemia, thiamine deficiency, salt and water retention

22

A low fat, low calorie, low sodium diet is good for what type of patient?

one with high blood pressure and increased risk for high cholesterol

23

If the calcium level is low, the parathyroid should be high. What does parathyroid require to function correctly?

magnesium

24

What is the diagnosis for someone with a large waist circumference, high triglyceride level, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood sugar?

metabolic syndrome

25

For someone with metabolic syndrome (not quite diabetes yet), what diet recommendations would you make?

no soda, avoid high fructose corn syrup, avoid white foods (bread, pasta, rice, potatoes)

-low glycemic index means it is absorbed into bloodstream slower giving body more time to catch up with slower release of insulin

26

Someone with COPD requires ___ calories than the Harris-Benedict Equation would estimate because why?

more calories because these people "work out" every time they take a breath

27

What reduces joint tenderness and improves mobility in some people with rheumatoid arthritis?

omega-3 fatty acids

28

What is a deposit of uric acid in joints? What should be limited?

gout
-limit alcohol, meat, seafood, and sugar sweetened beverages

29

In the US, what percent of persons 65 and older live in poverty?

9%

30

Age-associated loss of muscle mass is called what?

sarcopenia

31

On average energy needs for older people per decade decline an estimated ___% while the ___ remains high.

5%, nutrient demands remain high

32

What coverts ethanol to acetaldehyde? What does it require?

alcohol dehydrogenase, requires NADPH

33

What is a highly reactive molecule that is converted to acetate? What is it converted by?

acetaldehyde is highly reactive and is converted by aldehyde dehydrogenase to acetate

34

What is an inducable system in chronic alcoholics?

MEOS

35

50% of Asians are deficient in what?

ALDH isoenzyme

36

What compound inhibits ALDH?

Disulfiram (Antabuse) - used to help alcoholics stop drinking because it causes a terrible hangover

37

Metabolic effects of alcoholism? (4)

-lactic acidosis, ketosis
-hypoglycemia
-fatty liver
-ketone body formation

38

How much more acetaldehyde is found in alcoholics compared to non-alcoholics?

1.5x more

39

Isoenzymes of ____ act as mixed function oxidases on a wide range of xenobiotics. This is the rate limiting step of drug elimination for many drugs. (MEOS interaction)

cytochrome P450

40

Proliferation of the MEOS induced by chronic alcohol consumption may ___ the oxidation of other drugs.

increase

41

Folic acid deficiency can lead to what?

anemia and diarrhea

42

If you see bones breaking in a younger person when you typically wouldn't, what would you suspect?

vitamin D deficiency

43

What can be reversed if someone stops drinking alcohol or drinks very little?

fatty liver disease

44

What is due to thiamin deficiency?

Wernike-Korsakoff syndrome

45

What is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation? There are 1-2 cases per 1000 live births.

FAS- fetal alcohol syndrome

30% or more mothers who consume alcohol during pregnancy cause FAS

46

How many adults in the US are estimated to have prediabetes?

79 million

47

How much of a blood pressure reduction would you see for someone who lost 10kg of weight?

10 mmHg decrease

48

When meat is cooked at high temperatures amino acids and creatine in the meats react together and form carcinogens called what?

heterocyclic amines

49

While grilling meat, fat and added oils that drip on the fire generate carcinogens that vaporize onto the food called what?

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

50

Diets high in added sugars particularly enhances risk for what?

OBESITY, no diabetes

51

What maintains healthy skin and other epithelial tissues and participates in the synthesis and function of the organs and cells of the immune system and antibody production?

protein

52

What helps to resolve inflammation when it is no longer needed for the immune response through production of lipid mediators known as resolvins and protectins which also play a role in enhancing host defense?

omega-3 fatty acids

53

What maintains healthy skin and other epithelial tissues, participates in the cell replication and specialization that supports immune-cell and antibody production and the anti-inflammatory response?

vitamin A

54

What regulates immune cell (T-cell) responses and participates in antibody production?

vitamin D

55

What protects against oxidative damage? (2)

vitamins C and E

56

What helps maintain an effective immune response and participates in antibody production?

vitamin B6

57

What assists in cell replication and specialization that support immune cell and antibody production?

vitamin B12 and folic acid

58

What protections against oxidative damage?

selenium

59

What helps maintain an effective immune response and participates in antibody production?

zinc

60

DASH eating plan lowers blood pressure by how much? Sodium restriction? Physical activity? Moderate alcohol consumption?

DASH- 5-6mmHg
Sodium restriction- 2-7mmHg
Physical activity- 2-5mmHg
Moderate alcohol consumption- 2-4mmHg

61

What is the decreasing expectation of life with increasing age?

senescence

62

What is the only proven mechanism for slowing aging process?

caloric restriction

Resveratrol (in red wine) is being tested as a CR mimetic

63

What is the limited population doubling of cells?

Hayflick limit

~50 for fibroblast

64

What is the failure to maintain homeostasis under conditions of physiological stress accompanied by a decreased viability and increased vulnerability of the individual?

aging

65

What is the most important risk factor for most chronic diseases?

aging (the non-genetic kind)

66

Damage to DNA accumulates with age presumably due to inadequate DNA repair process with age. What incidence increases during aging and what is it due to?

Cancer incidence increases during aging due to increase DNA damage and mutation burden

67

Where are most free radicals generated and when do they increase?

in the mitochondria, increase with aging

68

Cellular functional impairment occurs when oxygen radicals overwhelm what?

natural celluar antioxidant defenses

-current evidence does NOT support anti-oxidant supplementation as a major means to prevent age-related pathology

69

What contributes to the immortality of the cancer cells?

Telomerase- overexpression of telomerase in mice increases lifespan

70

Caloric restricted mice accumulate less ___ damage.

mitochondria

71

Overexpression of what leads to 20% increase in maximum lifespan?

mitochondrial catalase

72

What is rare and is characterized by patients going from adolescence to elderly?

Werner's syndrome
-gray hair before age 27, death by late 40s
-DNA helicase mutation is culprit
-rare cancers

73

Very rare, ~1 in 3 million live births, patients in childhood resemble 80 year old's aging traits in many respects (brain shows little aging).

Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome
-patients die of stroke or heart attack by about 13 years
-mutation in the lamin A gene

74

18 separate trials showed vitamin ___ reduced mortality upon supplementation in the elderly.

Vitamin D

75

TOR kinase responds to stress with protein synthesis regulation. TOR kinase inhibition is linked to ___ and ___ in longevity.

CR and protein synthesis inhibition

76

What activates AMP kinase and extends longevity?

Metformin