Inflammation Flashcards Preview

Block 6 > Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammation Deck (39):
1

What are 4 characteristic features of inflammation? What does it result in? (from the Roman writer Celsus)

Rubor (redness)
Tumor (swelling)
Calor (heat)
Dolor (pain)

results in functio laesa (loss of function)

2

Inflammation is a protective response to rid tissues of ____ _____.

cell injury

3

Inflammation has a dark side. Repair usually does not result in complete ______ of tissue and very likely results in ____.

regeneration, scar

Complete function may or may not return to the tissue

4

What are the 3 types of inflammation?

acute
chronic
granulomatous (a subset of chronic)

5

What type of inflammation is characterized by mobilization of fluid and acute inflammatory cells (neutrophils) into tissues?

acute

6

What are the two steps in the acute inflammatory process?

vascular changes
cellular changes

7

What are the vascular changes? (4)

-immediate vasoconstriction followed by vasodilation
-increased blood flow to site of injury
-slowing of circulation to the area by increased microvascular permeability, eventually leading to stasis
-margination of WBC's, especially neutrophils

8

The two major events that occur on the cellular level are what?

delivery of WBC's to site of injury AND phagocytosis

9

How do WBC's get to the site of injury? (a sequence of 4 events)

-neutrophils marginate
-they then roll along the endothelium
-they migrate across the endothelium (diapedesis)
-they migrate through the interstitium as a result of a chemotactic response

10

What endothelial molecule and leukocyte molecule go with the rolling of neutrophils, monocytes, T lymphocytes?

Endothelial molecule- P-selectin

Leukocyte molecule- Sialyl-Lewis-X-modified proteins

11

What endothelial molecule and leukocyte molecule go with rolling and adhesion of neutrophils, monocytes, T lymphocytes?

Endothelial molecule- E-selectin

Leukocyte molecule- Sialyl-Lewis-X-modified proteins

12

What endothelial molecule and leukocyte molecule go with rolling of neutrophils and monocytes only?

Endothelial molecule- GlyCam-1, CD34

Leukocyte molecule- L-selectin

13

What endothelial molecule and leukocyte molecule go with adhesion, arrest, and transmigration of neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes?

Endothelial molecule- ICAM-1 (immunoglobin family)

Leukocyte molecule- CD11/CD18(Beta 2) integrins (LFA-1, Mac-1)

14

What endothelial molecule and leukocyte molecule go with adhesion of eosinophils, monocytes and lymphcytes?

Endothelial molecule- VCAM-1 (immunoglobin family)

Leukocyte molecule- VLA-4 (Beta 1) integrin

15

LAD1 leads to what?
genetic

defective leukocyte adhesion because of mutations in Beta chain of CD11/CD18 integrins

16

LAD2 leads to what?
genetic

defective leukocyte adhesion because of mutations in fucosyl transferase required for synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharide (ligand for selectins)

17

Chronic granulomatous disease leads to? X-linked?
Autosomal recessive?

genetic

-decreased oxidative burst
-phagocyte oxidase (membrane component)
-phagocyte oxidase (cytoplasmic components)

18

MPO deficiency leads to what? genetic

decreased microbial killing because of defective MPO- H2O2 system

19

Chediak-Higashi syndrome leads to what? genetic

decreased leukocyte functions because of mutations affecting protein involved in lysosomal membranes traffic

20

What vasodilates the microvascular system but paradoxically constricts larger arteries?

histamine

21

What is released from platelets as they aggregate? This acts similar to histamine

serotonin

22

Inactive components become activated, several help increased vascular permeability; C5a also aids in chemotaxis of neutrophils

complement

23

What initiates the clotting system?

activated Hageman factor (factor XIIa)

24

What contributes to pain and fever in the inflammatory response?

Prostaglandins

25

What modulates a variety of pathways involved with immunity, neutrophil activation, monocyte activation, and stimulate hematopoiesis?

cytokines

26

What accounts for much of tissue injury in the inflammatory response?

free radicals

27

What morphologic pattern in inflammation forms effusions?

serous

28

What morphologic pattern in inflammation forms fibrinous exudates?

fibrinous- duh

29

What morphologic pattern in inflammation forms pus?

suppurative (purulent)

30

What are the 4 parts of ulceration?

-necrosis
-acute and/or chronic inflammation
-granulation tissue
-scar

31

What type of inflammation is characterized by infiltration by mononuclear inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, plasma cells) along with MACROPHAGES?

chronic

32

What is the key player in the chronic inflammatory response?

THE MACROPHAGE!

33

Neutrophils are more often involved in ______ infections, lymphocytes/monocytes more often in _____ infections.

BACTERIAL

VIRAL

34

This is a distinctive subtype of chronic inflammation that is characterized by ACTIVATED MACROPHAGES (histiocytes).

granulomatous inflammation

35

What is in a granuloma? (3)

-ball of histiocytes (may or may not be necrotic)
-multinucleated giant cells
-surrounding cuff of lymphocytes

36

What causes a granuloma? (2)

immune reaction or foreign body

37

Who is responsible for a granuloma? (the most common)

-necrotizing (caseating) granulomas
-non-necrotizing (non-caseating) granulomas

38

Think TB, fugus (esp. Histoplasma) and cat scratch disease

necrotizing (caseating) granulomas

39

Think foreign body, sarcoid, and don't forget that diseases that have necrotizing granulomas can also be sprinkled with occasional non-necrotizing granulomas (usually the smaller ones are non-necrotic)

non-necrotizing (non-caseating) granulomas