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Flashcards in Mycology Parasitology overview Deck (87):
1

Culture on bacterial lawn, nasal entry, CNS, protozoa

Sx- granulomatous amebic encephalitis, chronic disease in IC

Acanthamoeba

Acanthamoebiasis

2

Hyphae bifurcate at acute angles, inhalation of spores from soil, fungus, CNS

Sx- fungus ball in tissue, AIDS associated encephalitis

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillosis

3

CMI deficiency, monomorphic, yeast only, unique capsule, fungi, CNS, inhalation of spores or yeast from soil below pigeon roosts

Sx- fever, HA, stiff neck and disorientation, dissemination

Cryptococcus neoformans

Cryptococcosis

4

Cysticerci larvae are released and invade brain and eye, ingestion of pork tapeworm eggs, cestode, CNS

Sx- calcified pockets in brain

Taenia solium

Cysticercosis

5

Associated with diabetes, morphology of asexual fruiting structure and mycelium, inhalation of conidia, fungi, CNS

Sx- tissue destruction in brain

Rhizopus sp, Abside sp, Mucor sp.

Mycormycosis- CNS
Zygomycosis- CNS

6

Free-living in water, protozoa, transmitted as a trophozoite, no cyst, inhalation of dust, CNS

Sx- encephalitis or meningoencephalitis

Naegleria fowleri

Naegleria infection

7

Larval worm invade many tissues, cestode, CNS, ingestion, sparganum larva in contaminated water or fish

Sx- motile worm in brain, calcified pockets

Diphyllobothrium

Sparganosis

8

Oocysts from cat litter boxes, protozoa, CNS, oocyst inhalation or undercooked pork ingestion

Sx- mono-lik, severe congenital or AIDS associated disease

Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasmosis

9

Africa, CNS, protozoa, Tsetse fly bite transmits a trypomastigote

Sx- headache, fatigue, coma

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, T.b. rhodesiense

Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

10

Free living in water, protozoa, transmitted as a trophozoite, no cyst, nonsterile eye solutions, swimming in warm water, inhalation of dust, EYE

Sx- keratitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis

Acanthamoeba

Acanthamoebiasis

11

calabar swellings, nematode, transcutaneous, mango fly bite containing worms, EYE

Sx- migrating worm seen in eye

Loa loa

Loiasis

12

associated with diabetes morphology of asexual fruiting structure and mycelium, inhalation of conidia, fungi, EYE

Sx- tissue destruction

Rhizopus sp, Absida sp, Mucor sp

13

Crescent-shaped macroconidia of Fusarium, conidia in soil inoculated into eye, fungi, EYE

Sx- raised corneal ulcers with occasional satellite lesions, plaques, or hypopyon

Fusarium solani
Candida albicans

Mycotic keratitis

14

Associated with fly habitat around rivers, transcutaneous, black fly bite containing worms, nematode, EYE

Sx- acute and chronic inflammation involving many tissues but most botably the eyes, hyperpigmented skin

Onchocerca volvulus

Onchocerciasis (river blindness)

15

larval worm invade many tissues, ingestion sparganum larva in contaminated water or fish, cestode, EYE

Sx- motile worm in eye calcified pockets

Diphyllobothrium latum

Sparganosis

16

Amoeba with ingested RBCs, cyst ingestion from fecal contaminated food, water, amoeba, GI

Sx- colitis, diarrhea with mucus and blood in severe cases, liver abscess

Entamoeba histolytica

amoebiasis, intestinal
amoebic dysentery

17

Most common helminthic infection worldwide, larvae travel from intestine to lung then back to intestine, adult worms are 30cm long, eggs are passed in feces, ingestion of eggs in fecal-contaminated water, nematode, GI

Sx- pneumonitis, intestinal perforation

Ascaris lumbricoides

Ascariasis

18

very large (50 x 100µm) protozoa, cyst ingestion, swine fecal associated, GI

Sx- colitis, bloody stools

Balantidium coli

Balantidiasis

19

dimorphic, budding yeast, invasive septate hyphae, pseudohyphae in tissue, germ tube formation in serum, chlamydospores on corn meal agar, normal flora become invasive via germ tube or pseudohyphae, fungi, GI

Sx- creamy or cheesy growth in mouth or esophagus, moist skin ares

Candida albicans
Candida glabrata

Candidiasis (oral thrush)

20

Chinese liver fluke, Eastern Asia, operculated eggs in feces, ingestion of larvae in undercooked infected fish, trematode, GI

Sx- hepatitis, biliary obstruction

Clonorchis sinensis

Clonochiasis

21

acid-fast cysts (uniformly stained-darkly), oocyst ingestion, protozoa, GI

Sx- AIDs associated diarrhea

Cryptosporidium parvum

Cryptosporidiasis

22

acid-fast cysts (variably stained), oocyst ingestion, protozoa, GI

Sx- AIDs associated diarrhea

Cyclospora cayetanesis

Cyclosporiasis

23

AIDs associated, oocyst ingestion, protozoa, GI

Sx- AIDs associated diarrhea

Cystoisospora belli

Cystoisosporiasis

24

No cyst, associated with pinworm infections, pinworm egg ingestion, protozoa, GI

Sx- moderate diarrhea

Dientamoeba fragilis

Dientamoebiasis

25

Eggs are passed in feces, motile, larval worm invade many tissues, ingestion of undercooked fish containing tissue cysts, cestode, GI

Sx- mild diarrhea, vit B12 deficiency

Diphyllobothrium latum, fish tapeworm

Diphyllobothriasis (fish tapeworm infectation)

26

Pumpkin seed tapeworm, feces contain egg packets of 8-15 eggs, ingestion of eggs in crushed fleas (from dog saliva), cestode, GI

Sx- asymptomatic to mld diarrhea

Dipylidium caninum

Dipylidium caninum infection

27

oncosphere larvae invade liver, lung, CNS and bone producing hydatid cysts which contain hydatid sand and fluid, Casoni skin test, ingestion fo eggs, Cestode, GI

Sx- large abdominal cysts causing organ destruction and inflammation

Echinococcus granulosus
E. multilocularis

Echinococcosis (hydatid disease)

28

sheep liver fluke, operculated eggs in feces, ingestion of larvae on water cress, trematode, GI

Sx- RUQ pain, fullness, jaundice, organ destruction, hepatitis and cirrhosis

Fasciola hepatica

Fascioliasis

29

Giant intestinal fluke, Southeast Asia, India, operculated eggs in feces, ingestion of larvae on water chestnuts, trematode, GI

Sx- diarrhea to malabsorption syndrome

Fasciolopsis buski

Fasciolopsiasis

30

sylvatic distrib., Sucker, face-like appearance, cyst ingestion from fecal contaminated water, protozoa, GI

Sx- duodenitis mild diarrhea to malabsorption syndrome

Giardia lamblia

Giardiasis

31

Hookworms (oral biting plates), eggs passed in feces, larvae go to lungs and then to the intestine, transcutaneous penetration of larvae from fecal-contaminated soil, nematode, GI

Sx- pruritis at skin penetration site, diarrhea, pneumonitis, anemia

Ancylostoma duodenale
Necator americanus

Hookworm infection

32

Most common human tapeworm in the USA, 3cm long, eggs are passed in feces, ingestion of eggs in food contaminated with bugs or mouse/rat feces, cestode, GI

Sx- asymptomatic to mild diarrhea

Hymenolepis nana

Hymenolepiasis

33

Asia, Africa, sandfly bite transmits a promastigote, protozoa, GI

Sx- fever, diarrhea, liver, spleen, kidney damage

Leishmania donovani

Leishmaniasis visceral (Kala-azar)

34

ingestion of conidia, fungi, GI

Sx- AIDs associated chronic diarrhea, slim or wasting disease

Microsporidia, Enterocytozoon bieneusi

Microsporidiasis

35

Blood flukes, Tropics, skin penetration by free-swimming larvae, trematode, GI

Sx- granuloma in liver, spleen, intestine, lung, and CNS

Schistosoma mansoni
S. japonicum

Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis, cercarial itch)

36

go to lung, then to intestine, larvae frequently seen in sputum, transcutaneous penetration of larvae from fecal-contaminated soil, nematode, GI

Sx- abdominal pain, nausea, pnemonitis

Strongyloides stercoralis

Strongyloidiasis (ground itch)

37

beef tapeworm, ingestion of undercooked beef containing tissue cysts, cestode, GI

Sx- asymptomatic to mild diarrhea

Taenia saginata

Taeniasis (beef tapeworm)

38

eggs are passed in feces, ingestion of undercooked pork containg cysts (tissue variety, not a protozoan-type cyst) with bladderworm larvae, cestode

Sx- asymptomatic to mild diarrhea

Taenia solium, pork tapeworm

Taeniasis (pork tapeworm)

39

larvae travel from the intestine to all major organs, eosinophilic granulomas and necrosis are widespread, no eggs in feces, ingestion of eggs, nematode, GI

Sx- RUQ pain, fullness, jaundice, organ destruction

Toxocara canis (dog)
Toxocara cati (cat)
Baylisascaris procyonis (raccoon)

Toxocariasis (visceral larval migrans)

40

whip worm, larvae indavde and are confined to the intestinal mucosa, eggs are passed in feces, ingestion of eggs, nematode, GI

Sx- bloody diarrhea, appendicitis

Trichuris trichuria

Trichuriasis

41

dimorphic budding yeast, invasive septate hyphae, pseudohyphae in tissue, germ tube formation in serum, chlamydospores on corn meal agar, fungi, normal flora become invasive via germ tube or pseudohyphae, fungi, GU

Sx- creamy or cheesy growth, vagina, mouth, moist skin areas, endocarditis and GI disease

Candida albicans, Candida glabreta

Candidiasis (vaginal thrush)

42

blood flukes, tropics, skin penetration by free-swimming larvae, trematode, GU

Sx- granuloma in bladder, blood in urine

Schistosoma haematobium

Schistosomiasis- bladder

43

flagellated, no cyst, seen on pap smear, transmitted as a trophozoite, STI, protozoa, GU

Sx- vaginitis, urethritis, cyctitis, prostatitis

Trichomonas vaginalis

Trichomoniasis

44

North and South America, kissing bug bite transmits a trypomastigote, protozoa, HEART

Sx- multi-organ involvement, heart, megacolon, megaesophagus

Trypanosome cruzi

Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas' disease)

45

Cysticerci larvae are released and invade muscle, ingestion of pork tapeworm eggs, cestode, MSK

Sx- calcified pockets in muscle

Taenia solium

Cysticercosis-muscle

46

Marked eosinophilia, larvae migrate from intestine to striated muscle where they form calcified cysts, ingestion of undercooked pork or other carnivore containing cysts containing larval worms, nematode, MSK

Sx- calcified pockets in muscle

Trichinella spiralis

Trichinosis (encysted worm larvae)

47

hyphae bifurcate at acute angles, inhalation of spores from soil, fungus, PULM

Sx- fungus ball in tissue, AIDs associated encephalitis

Aspergillus fumigatus

Aspergillosis

48

yeast cells have thick walls and broad bases in tissue, dimorphic, inhalation of conidia, fungi, PULM

Sx- granulomatous and suppurative lesions of the lung, dissemination to skin, resembles tuberculosis

Blastomyces dermatidis

Blastomycosis, North American

49

organisms become quiescent for years (pos. skin test), after the quiescent period, restricted to central and south america, dimporphic yeast in tissue have multiple buds, fungi, inhalation of conidia, PULM

Sx- lesions arise in the lung and metastasize to skin, mucocutaneous tissue, lymph nodes, spleen, liver and/or adrenals, resembles candidiasis

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Blastomycosis, South America

50

Limited to SW US desert, unhalation of arthrospores, dimorphic spherules form in tissue, inhalation of arthrospores, fungi, PULM

Sx- positive delayed type hypersensitivity, PNA, skin rash, flue-like Sx to serious disseminated infections

Coccidioides immitis

Coccidioidomycosis

51

CMI deficiency, monomorphic, yeast only, unique capsule, inhalation of spores or yeast from soil below pigeon roosts, fungi, PULM

Sx- fever, pulmonary congestion

Cryptococcus neoformans

Cryptococcosis-pulmonary

52

Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio river valleys, yeast in tissue, tuberculate macroconidia in culture, dimorphic, inhalation of macroconidia from soil with bird/bat fecal material, fungi, PULM

Sx- pulmonary, mild to severe, skin lesions

Histoplasma capsulatum

Histoplasmosis

53

Associated with diabetes, morphology of asexual fruiting structure and mycelium, inhalation of conida, fungi, PULM

Sx- tissue destruction

Rhizopus sp.
Absidia sp., Mucor sp.

Mycormycosis-pulm, zygomycosis-pulm

54

Lung fluke, tropics, ingestion, larvae in undercooked infected crab, crayfish, trematode, PULM

Sx- pneumonitis, hepatitis

Paragonimus westermani, Paragonimus kellicotti (USA)

Paragonimiasis

55

limited to HIV-infected individuals in Thailand and southern China, Dimorphic fungus intracellular yeast with transverse septum in vivo (37˚) typical penicillium mold in vitro (25˚), invitro it is water soluble and has diffusible red pigment, inhaled spores from soil, fungi, PULM

Sx- lung disease, disseminated to skin results in shin lesions resembling molluscum contagiosum

Talaromyces marnefei

Penicilliosis

56

Yeast with black spot, inhalation of cysts respiratory droplets, fungi, PULM

Sx- subclinical and latent to AIDs-associated interstitial pneumonia, also in malnourished or immune-deficient children

Pneumocystis jiroveci

Pneumocystis pneumonia

57

bugs live in the bed or nearby and feed on humans at night, bed bug bite at skin, inflammatory products, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- isolated pruitus and dermatitis

Cimex (Bed bugs)

Bed bug bite

58

dimorphic, budding yeast, invasive septate hyphae, pseudophyphae in tissue, germ tube formation in serum, chlamydospores on corn meal agar, normal flora become invasive via germ tube or pseudohyphae, fungi, SKIN

Sx- inflammation of moist skin areas

Candida albicans
Candida glabrata

Candidiasis- cutaneous

59

fresh water lakes, skin penetration by free-swimming larvae, trematode, SKIN

Sx- pruritis granuloma confined to skin

Schistosomes

Cerciasis-nonhuman (swimmer's itch)

60

medlar bodies, conidia in soil inoculated into skin by puncture wound, fungi, SKIN

Sx- warty nodules on skin, cauliflower-like

Fonsecaea pedrosoi

Chromoblastomycosis

61

Hookworm of dogs and cats, larvae penetrate skin but remain there, burrowing, transcutaneous penetration of larvae from fecal-contaminated soil, nematode, SKIN

Sx- creeping eruption or ground itch

Ancylostoma braziliense

Cutaneous larval migrans

62

pinworm, most common helminthic infection in USA, sticky tape mounts from perianal sample show eggs associated with Dientamoeba fragilis infections, ingestion of eggs in bedding and dust, nematode, SKIN

Sx- perianal pruritus, genitourinary infections

Enterobius vermicularis

Enterobiasis

63

isolated pruritus and dermatitis, fleas typically bite, feed and leave the human host, flea bite at skin, inflammatory products, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- pruritus (bite, vehicle for bubonic plague, etc)

Siphonaptera (fleas)

flea bites

64

Symptoms subsite in 48h, Glossy black spider with a red hour-glass on the abdomen, black widow spider bite of skin, intoxication, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- acute sharp pain at bite site

Lactrodectus mactans

Lactodectism

65

Asia, Africa, Europe, sandfly bite transmits a promastigote, protozoa, SKIN

Sx- skin ulcers leading to scars

Leishmania tropica

Leishmaniasis, cutaneous (oriental sore)

66

South America, sandfly bite transmits a promastigote, protozoa, SKIN

Sx- lips, mouth, ears, tissue destruction, scarring

Leishmania braziliensis

Leishmaniasis mucocutaneous

67

brown reclusa spider, violin spider, brown recluse bite, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- painless bite, vesicule and ulcer expanding over weeks to months

Loxosceles reclusa

Loxoscelism; necrotic arachinidism

68

white, brown, yellow, or black granules in lesion exudate, conidia in soil inoculated into skin by puncture wound, fungi, SKIN

Sx- draining sinus tracts in skin (lower leg) or mucous membranes

Pseudallescheria boydii
Madurella mycetomatis

Mycetoma

69

close contact with humans or fomites, eggs that are cemented to hairs in the region, inflammatory products, louse eggs transmitted human or animal to human via skin contact, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- pruritus of the scalp or body regions

Pediculus humanus (body louse); Pediculus humanus capitus (head louse)

Pediculosis, head or body lice (vehicle for typhus, etc)

70

STI, pruritus, eggs that are cemented to hairs in the region, inflammatory products, louse eggs trasmitted human to human via intimate genital contact, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- pruritus of genitals

Phthrius pubis

Phthiriasis (genital crabs)

71

cosmetic, spore from soil, fungi, SKIN

Sx- black noduel on hiar shaft composed of spore sacs and sproes

Piedraia hortai

black piedra

72

mycelia that fragment into arthrospores, skins contact, fungi, SKIN

Sx- creme-colored nodules on hair shaft

Trichosporon beigelii

white piedra

73

"spaghetti and meatballs" appearance, skin contact, fungi, SKIN

Sx- hypopigmented or hyperpigmented macules in skin

Malassezia furfur

Pityriasis versicolor

74

Limited to the Americas, live in cracks, crevices, thatched roofs, feed at night about the human face (kissing bug), vector for Chagas disease, young children are targeted, classical periorbital edema secondary to the bite, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- Chagoma, Romana's sign

Triatomid bugs (kissing bugs)

Rediviid bug bite (kissing bug bite)

75

STD, burrows in upper epidermis (interdigital, behind the knee and at skin folds), long-term living in the host, mites transmitted human to human via skin contact, inflammatory products, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- dermatitis, intense pruritus

Sarcoptes scabiei

scabies

76

dimorphic, budding cigar-shaped yeast in tissue, rosette pattern of conidiation on culture at 25˚C, conidia in soil inoculated into skin by puncture wound, fungi, SKIN

Sx- nodules and ulcers along lymphatics

Sporothrix schenckii

Sporotrichosis (Rose-Grower's Disease)

77

Scybala (fecal pellet in burrow), tick bite, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- vehicle for babesiosis, etc. Tick burrows into the soft skin, taking a blood meal, pruritus at skin penetration site

Dermacentor, Ixodes

Tick bite

78

Black 2-celled oval yeast in skin scrapings, skin contact, fungi, SKIN

Sx- black macules

Hortaea werneckii

Tinea nigra

79

UV fluorescence, arthrospores germinate on skin, fungi, SKIN

Sx- pruritic skin infection, extends into the epidermis, may invade hair and nail, keratin-loving, inflammation

Dermatophytes- Microsporum, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton

Tinea or ringworm

80

minute size, appear as a reddish dot, bite and leave human host, pruritus at skin penetration site, chiggers, arthropod, SKIN

Sx- isolated pruritic papules

Eytrombicula sp. Trombicula sp.

Trombiculiasis (chigger bite)

81

pyriform bodies, tick bite transmits a pyriform body, protozoa, SYSTEMIC

Sx- mild malaria without periodicity

Babesia microti

Babesiosis

82

Marked eosinophilia, transcutaneous, mosquito bite containing worms, nematode, SYSTEMIC

Sx- microfilarial clogging of the lymphatics

Wuchereria bancrofti
Brugia malaya

Elephantiasis

83

Symptoms subsite in 48h. Glossy black spider with a red hour-glass on the abdomen, black widow spider bite, intoxication, arthropod, SYSTEMIC

Sx- toxemia, acute sharp pain at bite site, muscular cramps, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, intestinal spasms and visual difficulties, abdominal tetanic spasms produce a highly characteristic board-like abdomen

Lactrodectus mactans

Lactodectism

84

attacks mature RBCs, mosquito bite transmits a sporozoite, protozoa, SYSTEMIC

Sx- periodic recurring fever, every 4th day

Plasmodium malariae

Malaria, benign quartan

85

fulminating, attacks all types of RBCs, sausage-shaped gametocytes, mosquito bite transmits a sporozoite, protozoa, SYSTEMIC

Sx- periodic recurring fever, every 3rd day, sometimes almost continuous

Plasmodium falciparum

Malaria, malignant tertian

86

Attacks immature RBCs, hypnozoites, mosquito bite transmits a sporozoite, protozoa, SYSTEMIC

Sx- periodic recurring fever, every 3rd day that returns after a significant gap with no apparent disease

Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale

Malaria, relapsing, Benign tertian

87

attacks RBCs, mosquito bite transmits a sporozoite, protozoa, SYSTEMIC

Sx- periodic recurring fever, every 3rd day

Plasmodium knowlesi

Malaria, tertian