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Flashcards in Bioethics Deck (47)
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1

Non-Hippocratic Codes

Codes were Hippocratic until the 1970s, were written by not medical ppl but came about by liberal politics

2

Nuremberg Code (1946 after WW2)

Informed consent came about from the Nuremberg trials

3

Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights

International standard for ethics (2005)

4

Moral Standing

Is the moral status of a being, can have "full standing" (humans) or "limited standing" (corpses, egg/sperm, fetuses, non-human animals)

5

Cardiac-Oriented View of Death

Individual dies when there is irreversible cessation of circulatory/resp function

6

Whole-Brain View of Death

Individual dies when there is irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain (including brain stem)
- this is current law except in Japan, NJ and NY

7

Higher-Brain View of Death

Individual dies when there is an irreversible loss of "higher" brain function; consciousness usually considered critical

8

Abortion 3 Views

- acceptable until capacity for higher brain function exists (~ 24wks)
- acceptable until capacity for any brain function exists (~ 8-12wks)
- acceptable until capacity for cardiac function exists (conception)

9

Capacity

Actual ability to carry out function

10

Potential

Genetic program to develop the capacity to carry out the critical function

11

Non-Human Animals

Western thought: sharp division btwn humans and other animals
Eastern thought: connections closer btwn humans and animals

12

Speciesism

Belief that membership in a species per se is relevant to moral standing

13

Principle

General characteristic of actions that makes them morally right

14

Virtue

Character trait of a person

15

Beneficence

Do good

16

Nonmaleficence

Don't do harm

17

Utility

Measure of net good by taking into account both benefits (beneficence) and harms (nonmaleficence)

18

Objective vs. Subjective Judgments

Hippocratic: clinician subjective judgment of facts/therapy
Modern: strives for objectiv judgment of facts, medical science can tell which therapy is best
Postmodern/contemp: pt's values should take precedence

19

Medical vs. Other Benefits

- if health is goal, pt math want to trade health off for other goods
- if total welfare is goal, physician's skills are inadequate

20

Conflicting Medical Goals

1. Save life
2. Cure dz
3. Relieve suffering
4. Promote health

21

Conflicts over Relating Benefits to Harms

Hippocratic formula (arithmetic or geometric combining), Primum non nocere ("first of all, do no harm")

22

Fidelity (respect for persons)

Duty of loyalty
Confidentiality: hippocratic principle justifies breaking confidence to benefit pt
- fidelity supports duty to keep promises of confidence EVEN IF pt would benefit from breaking it

23

Autonomy (respect for persons)

*Informed consent
- negative rights: liberty rights (right to be left alone)
- positive rights: entitlement rights (right to some good or service)

24

Veracity (respect for persons)

Truth-telling and lying

25

Avoidance of killing (respect for persons)

euthanasia

26

British Medical Association

Abandoned hippocratic paternalistic exception for breach of confidence and replaced with:
- exception of pt agrees, or formal public policy
*1971

27

American Medical Association

Abandoned hippocratic paternalistic exception for breach of confidence and replaced with:
- exception of threat of serious bodily harm, or applicable statute/ordinance
*1980

28

Therapeutic Privilege

Clinician' privilege of withholding info that he/she believes will be harmful to the pt
(re: autonomy)

29

Professional Standard (for informing)

What competent physician similarly situated would disclose

30

Reasonable Person/pt Standard (for informing)

What reasonable pt would want to know or would find important in decision making