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Flashcards in Behavior/Learning Deck (125)
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1

Positive reinforcement

Stimulus applied following a behavior, so the behavior is strengthened as a result
*behavior is increased

2

Negative reinforcement

Removal of aversive stimulus following a behavior, this leads to increase of the behavior
*behavior increased by avoidance or escape

3

Positive punishment

Application of an aversive stimulus contingent upon performance of the behavior
*behavior is decreased

4

Negative punishment

Removal of a pleasant or desirable stimulus contingent upon the behavior

5

Two Factor Theory

Both classical and operant conditioning maintain phobias

6

Primary reinforcers

Naturally reinforcing
*e.g. - food, water, sex, some drugs, nurturance

7

Primary punisher

Naturally punishing
*e.g. - shock, pain, nausea

8

Secondary reinforcers

Acquire their reinforcing through learning
*e.g. - applause; an A grade, Olympic gold medal, money

9

Secondary punishers

Acquired through learning
*e.g. - ridicule, banishment from a group, an F grade

10

Continuous reinforcement

Every instance of the behavior is reinforced
Result: quicker learning but behavior extinguishes more quickly

11

Intermittent reinforcement

Not every instance of behavior is reinforced
Result: behavior is not learned as quickly but is more resistant to extinction
*if delivered on a variable ratio schedule is most resistant to extinction (e.g. - slot machine that pays off on average every 10X)

12

Shaping a behavior

Creating new behavior by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior
*e.g. - a child learning to write is praised when she makes a letter, even though it is not formed perfectly

13

Superstitious behavior

random, non-contingent reinforcement that may lead humans to infer causality

14

Watson

Emotions can be classically conditioned
*white rat + loud noise = fear

15

Classical conditioning

Learning in which a natural response is elicited by a condition stimulus (CS), that previously was presented in conjunction with an unconditioned stimulus (CS)
*usually deals w/ involuntary responses

16

Operant conditioning

Learning in which a particular action is elicited bc it produces a punishment or reward
*usually deals w/ voluntary responses

17

Male Erectile Disorder

ROS: through classical conditioning, stimuli in a sexual sitch have become assoc w/ anxiety
CS: stimuli in sexual sitch
CR: performance anxiety
Tx: sensate focus

18

Sensate Focus Exercises

Similar to SD but involving mutual pleasuring exercises rather than muscle relaxation

19

Aversion Therapy

An unwanted behavior (setting fires) is paired with a painful or aversive stimulus (painful electric shock). An association is created btwn the unwanted behavior and the aversive stimulus and the fire-setting ceases

20

Pedophilia tx w/ Aversion Therapy

CS is children, previously assoc w/ sexual arousal is paired w/ a US that naturally elicits an unpleasant response, gives the pt greater control over their behavior
*group therapy w/ other perpetrators is good approach

21

Exposure

Gradual exposure to fearful stimulus (no training in relaxation)

22

Flooding

Abrupt, prolonged, full intensity exposure to the fearful stimulus
*(caution - it can be counterproductive)

23

Ritual/response Prevention

Exposure, followed by prevention of the ritualistic avoidance behavior
*first-line tx for OCD
*both classical and operant features

24

PTSD Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Exposure to fear provoking CS w/o US, simply extinction, which eventually leads to decay of the CS/CR bond and reduction in anxiety

25

Prolonged Exposure

Pt gradually exposed to CSS assoc w/ trauma and remains in their presence until anxiety lessens
*used by VA to tx PTSD

26

Cognitive Processing Therapy

Addresses irrational and upsetting thoughts pt may have related to the trauma
*used by VA to tx PTSD

27

Biological PTSD tx

Research focusing on altering an 'elicited fear memory' prior to its re consolidation back into memory

28

CBT for Insomnia

First-line tx, aimed @ helping pt identify and replace thoughts and behaviors that impair sleep; individual/group tx also good

29

Cognitive CBT for Insomnia

Help pt recognize/change beliefs that interfere w/ sleep, induce sleep education, challenging belief that it is terrible and catastrophic if sleep doesnt happen

30

Behavioral CBT for Insomnia

Help pt develop good sleep hygiene and change lifestyle habits involving smoking, drinking caffeine, etc.