Biological approach Flashcards Preview

Winter 2021, General Psychology > Biological approach > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biological approach Deck (25)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What did Franz Gall want to study?

A

Cerebral Cortex

2
Q

What is the cerebral cortex

A

The part of the brain we can see

3
Q

The human brain is “wrinkled”, how do we call the mountains and the valleys?

A

Mountains are the Gyri

Valleys are the sulci

4
Q

What is the main purpose of a wrinkled cerebral cortex and what did Frank believe it helped humans achieve?

A

Fit more cerebral cortex in the brain.

Animal brains are more smooth - so wrinkly brain = more processing power. = more complex thoughts

5
Q

How did Gall start to study phrenology?

A

His friends in school had better grades, but he felt smarter. So he thought that maybe they had better memories. He noticed those friends had big forehead so he imagines that memory was in the brain

6
Q

Franz Gall ended up making a map of the brain with each part representing a function/quality. Based on the idea that his friends with good memory had big foreheads, explain his theory.

A

When someone has a lot of ability in a certain function of the brain, it created a bump on the skull. When someone has less ability in something it creates a hole. This is the idea that you should have your head examined.

7
Q

With the discovery of actual phrenology, scientists discovered two parts of the left hemisphere related to language. Name both and explain their function.

A

broca’s Area: Initiates movement needed for speech. If impaired, hard time producing sentences and words.

Wernicke’s area: understanding language. So if impared- a person can produce speech, but it doesn’t make sense.

8
Q

The brain is divided into ___ lobes, each has an area of ____ ___ - in other words, each is specialized in something.

A

4

primary cortex

9
Q

Name the lobe that its primary cortex is the primary visual cortex. name what information is processed.

A

Occipital lobe

light information

10
Q

What is the primary cortex of the Temporal lobe?

What information does it process?

A

Primary auditory cortex

Sound information

11
Q

What is the primary cortex of the parietal lobe?

What information does it process?

A

Primary somatosensory cortex.

Information from the skin (pain, temperature, touch)

12
Q

The parietal lobe has its own “map”. Each part of the body is represented on it. What is the name of this map, and what does a bigger part/smaller part mean on the map?

A

Homunculus

The bigger the part, the more sensible it is, smaller the less it is.

13
Q

What is the name of the lobe that is responsible for the primary motor cortex. What information does it process?

A

Frontal lobe.

movement of the muscles.

14
Q

The frontal lobe also has a homunculus. Explain what it means when a part is bigger on the map/smaller.

A
Bigger= more precise movements 
Smaller= less precise movement.
15
Q

Explain the Mcgurk effect and what it proves to us when it comes to the interdependence of the lobes.

A

The Mcgurk effect is when there’s a video with the same sound, but you can hear different things when looking at videos (ba, fa).
It proves to us that lobes work together to process information.

16
Q

The ____ ____ is an area in each lobe that helps integrate info from other lobes.

A

Association cortex.

17
Q

What is a split-brain?

A

When the cerebral cortex is split in two (right hemisphere and right hemisphere)

18
Q

The left side of the body is processed by the right side of the brain and vice-versa. We call this a ____ connection?

A

Contralateral

19
Q

Name the 3 things (and their condition if any) that are contralateral to the brain.

A

Control of muscles
touch
vision (when looking straight ahead)

20
Q

What is the name of the part of the brain in the middle of the two hemispheres that is made up of millions of axons that create the connection between the two hemispheres?

A

Corpus Callosum

21
Q

Explain what was discovered in the experiment with split-brain monkeys?

A

Cut the corpus callosum and the optic nerve.
personality is the same.
But both brains have a different memory.

22
Q

What is a split-brain patient?

A

They were born without a corpus callosum.

23
Q

Explain what happened in the block experiment with the split-brain patients?

A

Showed a pattern to recreate.
One hand could easily do it, the other couldn’t.
When both hands were put together, they were fighting as if they were real people.

24
Q

Explain what happened in the imaging experiment with the split-brain patients.

A

The image presented to the right side. What did you see? Say answer like a normal person.

The image presented to the left side. What did you see? Can’t say it, but can draw it or point it.

25
Q

What did we discover in the imaging experiment with split-brain patients?

A

That the left side of the brain is responsible for language.