Why does memory fail Flashcards Preview

Winter 2021, General Psychology > Why does memory fail > Flashcards

Flashcards in Why does memory fail Deck (23)
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1
Q

What can cause Amnesia?

A

brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma

2
Q

What is retrograde Amnesia?

A

Cannot retrieve memories, but no problem forming new ones.

3
Q

What part of the brain creates retrograde amnesia?

A

cerebral cortex

4
Q

What is the mass action principle?

A

The more extensive the damage, the more previous memories the patients tend to lose.

5
Q

What is Ribot’s Law?

A

More likely to lose recently stored information than those they had for a long time (such as language).

6
Q

What is anterograde amnesia?

A

Cannot form long-term memories, but can still access past LTM and create new STM.

7
Q

What part of the brain causes anterograde amnesia when damaged? Describe what is does.

A

Hippocampus. Explicit long-term memory - those we are consciously aware of.

8
Q

What is semantic memory?

A

Explicit long-term memory of facts and concepts.

9
Q

What is episodic memory?

A

memory of specific event that happened to you. Autobiographical.

10
Q

Clive Wearing, what was his condition?

A

He has retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Do not remember the past, and cannot form new long-term memory.

11
Q

What is implicit long-term memory? What is procedural memory?

A

memories that we are not consciously aware of and it does not take conscious effort to retrieve them.
memory on how to do something.

12
Q

Which kind of long-term memory can people with amnesia recover? Why?

A

implicit long-term memories.

Another part of the brain is involved in implicit memories, the cerebellum (coordinating movements).

13
Q

What is absent-mindedness? Why does it occur?

Two techniques to avoid it?

A

fail to encode important info in the LTM because weren’t paying attention.
More mindful, routines.

14
Q

What is blocking?
Memories are conceptualized as being stored in a ____ with each piece of info being _____ to others. Blocking happens when…

A

involves a failure in retrieval that keeps us from accessing store information. Tip-of-the tongue kind of thing.
web/ connected
cannot locate a piece of info within the web.

15
Q

How is blocking cured?

A

retrieval cues (finding pathways in the web) to allow us to find the info.

16
Q

What is context-dependent retrieval?

A

if you learn something in a context (land, underwater) more likely to retrieve the info in the same context. Context is a retrieval cue.

17
Q

What is state-dependent retrieval?

A

if you encode something in a state, you are more likely to remember it in the same state.

18
Q

What is storage decay? Whose concept?

A

Forgetting often occurs due to the passage of time. Ebbinghaus

19
Q

How did Ebbinghaus study storage decay? How did he conceptualize his findings?

A

Made people memorize nonsense words. Checked for how long they can remember it.
Forgetting curve.

20
Q

What is the serial positioning effect?

Name the two concepts.

A

order in which learn stuff affects how we remember.
1- Primacy effect: initial info
2- Recency: later info

21
Q

What is suggestibility?

A

include misleading information from external sources into our memories.

22
Q

Explain Loftus’ study on suggestibility?

A

Ask questions about a car accident and use different words to describe incident. Ask how fast were people going. When the word was like “smashed” people said that the cars were going faster.

23
Q

What does it mean when we say that we reconstruct our memories when we need them?

A

piece memories together from a few highlights and then we fill-in the rest. So as we reconstruct, we can be influenced by external sources.