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Flashcards in Biology 1 Lab Major Test Deck (134):
0

The term ____________ refers to the two oculars or eye pieces

BINOCULAR

1

The term ____________ refers to the fact that the image that is formed is the result of light passing through two sets of lenses

COMPOUND

2

The term _________ as it refers to the microscope means that light is used to form the image instead of a beam of electrons as in an electron microscope, or sound waves as in ultrasonography.

LIGHT

3

The ability of a microscope to stay in focus as the magnification is either increased or decreased

PARFOCAL

4

The ability of a lens to distinguish between two points tat are very close together.

RESOLVING POWER/ RESOLUTION

5

The ability of a microscope to increase the apparent size of an object

MAGNIFICATION

6

The ___________________ is determined by multiply9ing the magnification of the ocular X the ocular X the magnification of the objective in use

TOTAL MAGNIFICATION

7

The _________________ is the actual amount of area on a slide that can be viewed under the microscope at one time without having to move the slide

FIELD OF VIEW

8

The distance from the specimen on the slide to the objective lens of the microscope, when the specimen is in focus

WORKING DISTANCE

9

_____________________ have two oculars and produce an image with depth.

DISSECTING MICROSCOPES

10

These microscopes usually magnify less but provide a wider field of view.

DISSECTING MICROSCOPES

11

These microscopes are often used to look through when dissecting small specimens

DISSECTING MICROSCOPES

12

These microscopes allow a person to view small specimens or live specimens that would otherwise have to be stained to be able to see.

PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPES

13

What are the three types of electron microscopes?

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
SCANNING TUNNELING ELCTRN MICRSCPE

14

This kind of electron microscope magnifies thousands of times and allows scientists to see into the inner structure of cells.

TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

15

The _________________ electron microscopes generally do not magnify as greatly as TEMs and produce images of the surface of objects

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

16

The __________________________ is the most powerful type of electron microscope

SCANNING TUNNELING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE

17

What is the bottom part on which the microscope rests?

BASE

18

What is the angular part of the frame?

ARM

19

What is the platform on which the slide is placed?

STAGE

20

What connects the oculars and nosepiece?

BODY TUBE

21

Two clips hold the specimen and two knobs on the lower left of the stage move the specimen transverse and longitudinal

MECHANICAL STAGE

22

The ___________ provides built-in illumination (no mirror is needed)

LIGHT

23

The ______________ is located below the stage and regulates the amount of light passing through the stage

DIAPHRAGM

24

What are the two main types of diaphragms in general use?

IRIS DIAPHRAGM
DISK DIAPHRAGM

25

The ______________ is a movable lens located in the hole of the stage (does not affect magnification)

CONDENSER

26

The _____________ is the larger knob that raises and lowers the body tube for focusing

COARSE ADJUSTMENT KNOB

27

The ______________ is the external knob that is used for final focusing

FINE ADJUSTMENT KNOB

28

The movable part of the nosepiece that turns the objective lenses

REVOLVING NOSEPIECE

29

What are the four objectives?

4X
10X
40X
100X

30

The lenses at the top of the body tube, which have a magnification of 10x

OCULARS

31

THE ______________ is a slide adjustment that allows you to adjust the oculars to the corner spacing of your eyes

INTERPUPILLARY ADJUSTMENT

32

The _______________ adjustment allows you to adjust each eye to the objective.

DIOPTER

33

A non-living, porous semi-rigid "casing" for the living protoplasm

CELL WALL

34

The _____________ is the viscous, granular mass of protoplasm, gray or blue in appearance depending on the stain

CYTOPLASM

35

The ____________ is a selectively permeable covering around the protoplasm that regulates transported materials

CELL (PLASMA) MEMBRANE

36

The _____________ is a clear area in the cell that is not occupied by cytoplasm and is not present in young cells (often found in the center of the cell)

VACUOLE

37

The ________________ is any structure of the cell with specific function(s)

ORGANELLE

38

The __________ is the watery solution filling the vacuoles

CELL SAP

39

The ____________ is the organelle containing the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells, usually visible as a round body darker in color than the cytoplasm

NUCLEUS

40

The ____________ is a green oval pigmented organelle varying in number

CHLOROPLAST

41

The ____________ is one or more dark stained areas within the nucleus containing protein and RNA

NUCLEOLUS

42

The ________________ is a flowing motion of granules causing the chloroplasts and other organelles to be pushed around

CYTOPLASMIC STREAMING (CYCLOSIS)

43

_______________ is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

DIFFUSION

44

________________ is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane

OSMOSIS

45

During the process of osmosis, there will be an increase or decrease in _____________ on one side of the membrane.

PRESSURE

46

The pressure created by osmosis is called _________________

OSMOTIC PRESSURE

47

If osmotic pressure increases in an animal cell, the cell will swell and possibly burst.
This is called what?

CYTOLYSIS (HEMOLYSIS IF IT OCCURS IN BLOOD CELLS)

48

The pressure inside a plant cell created by osmosis is called _____________ or _____________.

TUGOR OR TUGOR PRESSURE

49

If the osmotic pressure inside an animal cell decreases, the cell will shrivel.
This is called what?

CRENATION

50

In plant cells the cell membrane will be pulled away from the cell wall and will shrivel.
This is called what?

PLASMOLYSIS

51

______________ occurs because of a concentration difference between the solution on one side of the membrane and the solution on the other side of the membrane

OSMOSIS

52

The solution with the lower solute concentration and thus the higher solvent (water) concentration is called the _________________

HYPOTONIC SOLUTION

53

THE SOLUTION WITH THE HIGHE SOLUTE CONCENTRATION AND THUS THE LOWER SOLVENT (WATER) CONCENTRATION IS CALLED THE ________________

hypertonic solution

54

If the solute and solvent concentrations are equal between the two solutions being compared, they are termed ____________ to each other

ISOTONIC

55

Osmosis will move in the direction from the _____________ solution toward the ___________ solution

HYPOTONIC
HYPERTONIC

56

What are two approaches in scientific inquiry?

MODELING AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD

57

What is the purpose of a control group?

TO SERVE AS A COMPARISON FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

58

Plant and animal cells are alike since both possess a(n) __________________

PLASMA MEMBRANE

59

A student observes several cells under the microscope. He identifies them as plant cells because they possess:
A. NUCLEOLI
B. VACUOLES
C. CHLOROPLASTS
D. CENTRIOLES

CHLOROPLASTS

60

A plant cell organelle that stores dissolved material is the _________________

VACUOLE

61

Two organelles present only in plant cells are thhe _____________ and ____________

CHLOROPLAST AND CELL WALL

62

A chemical substance present in Elodea cells, but not in onion skin cells, is

CHLOROPHYLL

63

A structure having a similar function in both plant and animal cells is the _____________

PLASMA MEMBRANE

64

____________ is an approach to understanding the natural world.

SCIENCE

65

A cell that posesses chlorophyll usually also posesses a

CELL WALL

66

___________ is to notice or see something (personally or based on previous research) that can be measured

OBSERVATION

67

A _______________ is something that is well-defined which arises from the observations you made previously.

QUESTION

68

The statement, "Does the amount of water each plant receives affect the growth of the tomato?", is an example of a _____________________

QUESTION

69

A _______________ is an educated guess or tentative explanation to your question

HYPOTHESIS

70

A _____________ refers to a general statement that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena

NULL HYPOTHESIS

71

The rejection of the null hypothesis then leads to a(n) ________________

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS

72

The statement, "Varying amounts of water have no effect on tomato growth.", is an example of a(n) __________

NULL HYPOTHESIS

73

The statement, "The more water a tomato plant receives, the larger the tomato fruit will grow.", is an example of a(n) _____________

ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS

74

The _______________ is typically an "if-then" statement which leads to your experiment

PREDICTION

75

The statement, "If I water half of my garden three times a week and the other half only one time week, the more watered side will produce larger tomatoes.", is an example of a(n) __________________

PREDICTION

76

The _________________ is the factor that varies in the experiment.

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

77

The ___________________ is the factor that will be affected by the independent variable.

DEPENDENT VARIABLE

78

The ________________ is the group in which the independent variable is manipulated

EXPERIMENTAL GROUP

79

The ______________ is the group in which the independent variable is removed or set at a specific standard

CONTROL GROUP

80

_______________ is the gathering of collected and recorded information in the best possible manner

DATA COLLECTION

81

A ___________ is a well supported hypothesis

THEORY

82

A ___________ is comprised of a body of ideas and concepts which have been thoroughly tested by various individuals to the point of being accepted as "fact"

THEORY

83

_______________ takes general information and applies it to specific instances

DEDUCTIVE REASONING

84

___________ begins with specific information and looks to apply it to larger, more general instances

INDUCTIVE REASONING

85

The microscopically visible structures of a stained cheek cell are the:
A. NUCLEUS
B. PLASMA MEMBRANE
C. CYTOPLASM
D. ALL OF THESE
E. A and C only

D. ALL OF THESE

86

The structure of a cheek cell that absorbs the most stain is the ____________

NUCLEUS

87

The shape of an Elodea cell can be described as _______________

ELONGATED RECTANGLES

88

The green spheroid organelles within Elodea cells are the ___________________

CHLOROPLASTS

89

The cytoplasmic streaming current that causes some organelles to move within the Elodea cells is called ______________

CYCLOSIS

90

The center of most plant cells, such as Elodea, appear empty because of the presence of a single large _________________

CENTRAL VACUOLE WITH TRANSPARENT CELL SAP

91

From the list below, select the cell structures common to both typical plant and typical animal cells.
*centrioles
*nucleus
*cell wall
*cytoplasm
*plasma membrane

NUCLEUS
CYTOPLASM
PLASMA MEMBRANE

92

When comparing Elodea cells with cheek cells, which of the following statements is true?
A. Elodea cells have a cell wall, a central vacuole, and chloroplasts, but cheek cells do not.

B. Elodea cells have a plasma membrane, a nucleus, and cytoplasm, but cheek cells do not.

C. Elodea cells have vacuoles, cytoplasm, and ribosomes, but cheeks do not.

D. Elodea cells have centrioles, vacuoles, and plasma membranes, but cheek cells do not

A. ELODEA CEELS HAVE A CELL WALL, A CENTRAL VACUOLE, AND CHLOROPLASTS, BUT CHEEK CELLS DO NOT

93

The advantage of staining cells is to increase the _____________ of cellular structures that would otherwise be transparent against a transparent background

CONTRAST

94

From the list below, name the structures that can be observed in stained onion cells:
*nucleus
*nucleolus
*chloroplasts
*centrioles
*cell walls

NUCLEUS
NUCLEOLUS
CELL WALLS

95

An organelle that is present in Elodea cells, but is not present in onion ski cells is the ______________

CHLOROPLASTS

96

An important cellular process performed by Elodea cells but not by onion skin cells is _____________________

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

97

The organelle, common to ALL types of cells, that encloses the cytoplasm and controls cell transport is the _________________

PLASMA MEMBRANE

98

The membrane-bound, cytoplasmic storage organelle containing dissolved, usable, or waste materials is a(n) ____________

VACUOLE

99

The organelle, found in animal-type cells and not plant-type cells, functions in cell division, i.e. mitosis?

CENTRIOLE

100

The chemical compound, but not in onion skin cells is _______________

CHLOROPHYLL

101

The structure that surrounds plant-type cells but not animal-type cells is the _________________

CELL WALL

102

A typical cell has what three main components?

CELL MEMBRANE
NUCLEUS
CYTOPLASM

103

What are the two basic types of cell division in humans?

MEIOSIS
MITOSIS

104

_______________ is the cell division that produces reproductive cells

MEIOSIS

105

What is the cell that is produced by meiosis?

GAMETES

106

______________ is the type of cell division that produces body cells or ____________ cells

MITOSIS
SOMATIC

107

What is the haploid number?

THE SINGLE PAIR OF CHROMOSOMES

108

What is the diploid number?

It means that the cell contains both copies of the genome

109

Mitosis produces what kind of cell?

SOMATIC CELLS

110

Meiosis produces what kind of cell?

GAMETES

111

How man cell divisions does mitosis have?

ONE

112

How many cell divisions does meiosis have?

TWO

113

What are the two stages of the cell cycle?

MITOSIS
INTERPHASE

114

What stage of the cell cycle does the cell spend 90 percent of its life in?

INTERPHASE

115

What are the three subdivided stages of interphase?

G-1
S
G-2

116

Each individual strand of a chromosome is called a ___________

SISTER CHROMATID

117

What is a sister chromatid?

An individual strand of a chromosome

118

The two sister chromatids of a duplicated chromosomes are held together by what?

CENTROMERE

119

What are the four phases of mitosis?

PROPHASE
METAPHASE
ANAPHASE
TELOPHASE

120

In _______________ the nuclear membrane breaks down and the duplicated chromosomes begin to shorten and thicken.

PROPHASE

121

What is the stage in mitosis where the chromosomes are located across the equator of the cell

METAPHASE

122

What is the stage of mitosis in which the chromatids (or chromosome strands which arose during interphase) separate from each other and begin to migrate toward the opposite poles (ends) of the cells

ANAPHASE

123

_____________ also begins in anaphase

CYTOKINESIS

124

What marks the beginning of telophase?

The completion of migration of the chromosome strands to the opposite ends of the cells

125

What is the end result of mitosis?

The production of two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the original mother cell

126

In order for DNA to be released from cells, the cell walls, plasma membranes, and nuclear membranes must be _______________

BE BROKEN DOWN

127

What dissociates the proteins from the DNA, but doesn't remove them from the solution?

THE HOMOGENIZATION MEDIUM

128

DNA is complexed with _______________ that must be removed before DNA can be isolated

CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS

129

______________ is the separation of molecules of different sizes and electric charges due to the flow of electricity

ELECTROPHORESIS

131

______________ is a very pure form of agar made from seaweed

AGAROSE

132

____________________ contains salts that will help to conduct electricity across the gel and keep the gel from drying out during electrophoresis

THE BUFFERING SOLUTION

133

_______________ is the study of how characteristics are passed down from parents to offspring

GENETICS

134

There have been over ________________ inherited traits described in humans and _______________ new ones are described each year.

3000
75-100