Flashcards in Biology 1 Lab Major Test Deck (134):
The term ____________ refers to the two oculars or eye pieces
The term ____________ refers to the fact that the image that is formed is the result of light passing through two sets of lenses
The term _________ as it refers to the microscope means that light is used to form the image instead of a beam of electrons as in an electron microscope, or sound waves as in ultrasonography.
The ability of a microscope to stay in focus as the magnification is either increased or decreased
The ability of a lens to distinguish between two points tat are very close together.
RESOLVING POWER/ RESOLUTION
The ability of a microscope to increase the apparent size of an object
The ___________________ is determined by multiply9ing the magnification of the ocular X the ocular X the magnification of the objective in use
The _________________ is the actual amount of area on a slide that can be viewed under the microscope at one time without having to move the slide
FIELD OF VIEW
The distance from the specimen on the slide to the objective lens of the microscope, when the specimen is in focus
_____________________ have two oculars and produce an image with depth.
These microscopes usually magnify less but provide a wider field of view.
These microscopes are often used to look through when dissecting small specimens
These microscopes allow a person to view small specimens or live specimens that would otherwise have to be stained to be able to see.
PHASE CONTRAST MICROSCOPES
What are the three types of electron microscopes?
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
SCANNING TUNNELING ELCTRN MICRSCPE
This kind of electron microscope magnifies thousands of times and allows scientists to see into the inner structure of cells.
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
The _________________ electron microscopes generally do not magnify as greatly as TEMs and produce images of the surface of objects
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
The __________________________ is the most powerful type of electron microscope
SCANNING TUNNELING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE
What is the bottom part on which the microscope rests?
What is the angular part of the frame?
What is the platform on which the slide is placed?
What connects the oculars and nosepiece?
Two clips hold the specimen and two knobs on the lower left of the stage move the specimen transverse and longitudinal
The ___________ provides built-in illumination (no mirror is needed)
The ______________ is located below the stage and regulates the amount of light passing through the stage
What are the two main types of diaphragms in general use?
The ______________ is a movable lens located in the hole of the stage (does not affect magnification)
The _____________ is the larger knob that raises and lowers the body tube for focusing
COARSE ADJUSTMENT KNOB
The ______________ is the external knob that is used for final focusing
FINE ADJUSTMENT KNOB
The movable part of the nosepiece that turns the objective lenses
What are the four objectives?
The lenses at the top of the body tube, which have a magnification of 10x
THE ______________ is a slide adjustment that allows you to adjust the oculars to the corner spacing of your eyes
The _______________ adjustment allows you to adjust each eye to the objective.
A non-living, porous semi-rigid "casing" for the living protoplasm
The _____________ is the viscous, granular mass of protoplasm, gray or blue in appearance depending on the stain
The ____________ is a selectively permeable covering around the protoplasm that regulates transported materials
CELL (PLASMA) MEMBRANE
The _____________ is a clear area in the cell that is not occupied by cytoplasm and is not present in young cells (often found in the center of the cell)
The ________________ is any structure of the cell with specific function(s)
The __________ is the watery solution filling the vacuoles
The ____________ is the organelle containing the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells, usually visible as a round body darker in color than the cytoplasm
The ____________ is a green oval pigmented organelle varying in number
The ____________ is one or more dark stained areas within the nucleus containing protein and RNA
The ________________ is a flowing motion of granules causing the chloroplasts and other organelles to be pushed around
CYTOPLASMIC STREAMING (CYCLOSIS)
_______________ is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
________________ is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
During the process of osmosis, there will be an increase or decrease in _____________ on one side of the membrane.
The pressure created by osmosis is called _________________
If osmotic pressure increases in an animal cell, the cell will swell and possibly burst.
This is called what?
CYTOLYSIS (HEMOLYSIS IF IT OCCURS IN BLOOD CELLS)
The pressure inside a plant cell created by osmosis is called _____________ or _____________.
TUGOR OR TUGOR PRESSURE
If the osmotic pressure inside an animal cell decreases, the cell will shrivel.
This is called what?
In plant cells the cell membrane will be pulled away from the cell wall and will shrivel.
This is called what?
______________ occurs because of a concentration difference between the solution on one side of the membrane and the solution on the other side of the membrane
The solution with the lower solute concentration and thus the higher solvent (water) concentration is called the _________________
THE SOLUTION WITH THE HIGHE SOLUTE CONCENTRATION AND THUS THE LOWER SOLVENT (WATER) CONCENTRATION IS CALLED THE ________________
If the solute and solvent concentrations are equal between the two solutions being compared, they are termed ____________ to each other
Osmosis will move in the direction from the _____________ solution toward the ___________ solution
What are two approaches in scientific inquiry?
MODELING AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD
What is the purpose of a control group?
TO SERVE AS A COMPARISON FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
Plant and animal cells are alike since both possess a(n) __________________
A student observes several cells under the microscope. He identifies them as plant cells because they possess:
A plant cell organelle that stores dissolved material is the _________________
Two organelles present only in plant cells are thhe _____________ and ____________
CHLOROPLAST AND CELL WALL
A chemical substance present in Elodea cells, but not in onion skin cells, is
A structure having a similar function in both plant and animal cells is the _____________
____________ is an approach to understanding the natural world.
A cell that posesses chlorophyll usually also posesses a
___________ is to notice or see something (personally or based on previous research) that can be measured
A _______________ is something that is well-defined which arises from the observations you made previously.
The statement, "Does the amount of water each plant receives affect the growth of the tomato?", is an example of a _____________________
A _______________ is an educated guess or tentative explanation to your question
A _____________ refers to a general statement that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena
The rejection of the null hypothesis then leads to a(n) ________________
The statement, "Varying amounts of water have no effect on tomato growth.", is an example of a(n) __________
The statement, "The more water a tomato plant receives, the larger the tomato fruit will grow.", is an example of a(n) _____________
The _______________ is typically an "if-then" statement which leads to your experiment
The statement, "If I water half of my garden three times a week and the other half only one time week, the more watered side will produce larger tomatoes.", is an example of a(n) __________________
The _________________ is the factor that varies in the experiment.
The ___________________ is the factor that will be affected by the independent variable.
The ________________ is the group in which the independent variable is manipulated
The ______________ is the group in which the independent variable is removed or set at a specific standard
_______________ is the gathering of collected and recorded information in the best possible manner
A ___________ is a well supported hypothesis
A ___________ is comprised of a body of ideas and concepts which have been thoroughly tested by various individuals to the point of being accepted as "fact"
_______________ takes general information and applies it to specific instances
___________ begins with specific information and looks to apply it to larger, more general instances
The microscopically visible structures of a stained cheek cell are the:
B. PLASMA MEMBRANE
D. ALL OF THESE
E. A and C only
D. ALL OF THESE
The structure of a cheek cell that absorbs the most stain is the ____________
The shape of an Elodea cell can be described as _______________
The green spheroid organelles within Elodea cells are the ___________________
The cytoplasmic streaming current that causes some organelles to move within the Elodea cells is called ______________
The center of most plant cells, such as Elodea, appear empty because of the presence of a single large _________________
CENTRAL VACUOLE WITH TRANSPARENT CELL SAP
From the list below, select the cell structures common to both typical plant and typical animal cells.
When comparing Elodea cells with cheek cells, which of the following statements is true?
A. Elodea cells have a cell wall, a central vacuole, and chloroplasts, but cheek cells do not.
B. Elodea cells have a plasma membrane, a nucleus, and cytoplasm, but cheek cells do not.
C. Elodea cells have vacuoles, cytoplasm, and ribosomes, but cheeks do not.
D. Elodea cells have centrioles, vacuoles, and plasma membranes, but cheek cells do not
A. ELODEA CEELS HAVE A CELL WALL, A CENTRAL VACUOLE, AND CHLOROPLASTS, BUT CHEEK CELLS DO NOT
The advantage of staining cells is to increase the _____________ of cellular structures that would otherwise be transparent against a transparent background
From the list below, name the structures that can be observed in stained onion cells:
An organelle that is present in Elodea cells, but is not present in onion ski cells is the ______________
An important cellular process performed by Elodea cells but not by onion skin cells is _____________________
The organelle, common to ALL types of cells, that encloses the cytoplasm and controls cell transport is the _________________
The membrane-bound, cytoplasmic storage organelle containing dissolved, usable, or waste materials is a(n) ____________
The organelle, found in animal-type cells and not plant-type cells, functions in cell division, i.e. mitosis?
The chemical compound, but not in onion skin cells is _______________
The structure that surrounds plant-type cells but not animal-type cells is the _________________
A typical cell has what three main components?
What are the two basic types of cell division in humans?
_______________ is the cell division that produces reproductive cells
What is the cell that is produced by meiosis?
______________ is the type of cell division that produces body cells or ____________ cells
What is the haploid number?
THE SINGLE PAIR OF CHROMOSOMES
What is the diploid number?
It means that the cell contains both copies of the genome
Mitosis produces what kind of cell?
Meiosis produces what kind of cell?
How man cell divisions does mitosis have?
How many cell divisions does meiosis have?
What are the two stages of the cell cycle?
What stage of the cell cycle does the cell spend 90 percent of its life in?
What are the three subdivided stages of interphase?
Each individual strand of a chromosome is called a ___________
What is a sister chromatid?
An individual strand of a chromosome
The two sister chromatids of a duplicated chromosomes are held together by what?
What are the four phases of mitosis?
In _______________ the nuclear membrane breaks down and the duplicated chromosomes begin to shorten and thicken.
What is the stage in mitosis where the chromosomes are located across the equator of the cell
What is the stage of mitosis in which the chromatids (or chromosome strands which arose during interphase) separate from each other and begin to migrate toward the opposite poles (ends) of the cells
_____________ also begins in anaphase
What marks the beginning of telophase?
The completion of migration of the chromosome strands to the opposite ends of the cells
What is the end result of mitosis?
The production of two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the original mother cell
In order for DNA to be released from cells, the cell walls, plasma membranes, and nuclear membranes must be _______________
BE BROKEN DOWN
What dissociates the proteins from the DNA, but doesn't remove them from the solution?
THE HOMOGENIZATION MEDIUM
DNA is complexed with _______________ that must be removed before DNA can be isolated
______________ is the separation of molecules of different sizes and electric charges due to the flow of electricity
______________ is a very pure form of agar made from seaweed
____________________ contains salts that will help to conduct electricity across the gel and keep the gel from drying out during electrophoresis
THE BUFFERING SOLUTION
_______________ is the study of how characteristics are passed down from parents to offspring