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0

_____________ is the transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring

HEREDITY

1

What is heredity?

The transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring

2

What is the study of heredity?

GENETICS

3

What is genetics?

THE STUDY OF HEREDITY

4

___________________- the differences between parents and offspring or among individuals of a population

GENETIC VARIATION

5

What is genetic variation?

The differences between parents and offspring or among individuals of a population

6

Who was "The Father of Genetics" ?

GREGOR MENDEL

7

__________ states that there will usually be one trait that will show up more often than others

THE LAW OF DOMINANCE

8

A ______________ can mask another allele

DOMINANT ALLELE

9

What is a characteristic that shows up more often than others called?

DOMINANT ALLELE

10

The _______________ is the allele that is being masked by the dominant allele

RECESSIVE ALLELE

11

What represents the dominant allele?

A CAPITAL LETER

12

What represents the recessive allele?

A lowercase letter

13

__________________ states that each individual has 2 factors for each trait

LAW OF SEGREGATION

14

_________________ states that the factors separate during the formation of gametes

THE LAW OF SEGREGATION

15

________________ states that each gamete contains only one factor from each pair of factors

LAW OF SEGREGATION

16

________________ states that fertilization gives each new individual two factors for each trait

The Law of Segregation

17

What does the Law of Segregation entail?

Each individual has 2 factors for each trait
The factors separate during the formation of gametes
Each gameete contains only one factor from each pair of factors
Fertilization gives each new individual two factors for each trait

18

The ________________ is illustrated by a dihybrid cross

LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT

19

__________________ states that members of any gene pair segregates from one another independently of the members of other gene pairs

The LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT

20

What ensures that each gamete receives one allele for each locus?

THE LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT

21

What was the crop that Mendel used to run his experiments?

GARDEN PEAS

22

Why did Mendel use the crop that he did?

EASY TO GROW
SHORT GROWING SEASON
EASILY CROSS POLLINATE
SEVERAL VARIABLE CHARACTERISTICS

23

How many characteristics did Mendel identify when observing the garden pea?

34 CHARACTERISTICS

24

How many garden pea characteristics did Mendel test when running his experiments?

22

25

What were the 7 main characteristics of the garden pea that Mendel observed?

HEIGHT
SEED COLOR
SEED SHAPE
FLOWER COLOR
FLOWER POSITION
POD SHAPE
POD COLOR

26

Mendel first developed _____________________ strains

PURE BREEDING (HOMOZYGOUS)

27

What is another name for "pure breeding"

HOMOZYGOUS

28

What is the P-GENERATION?

Parent Generation

29

What is the F-1 Generation?

OFFSPRING FROM THE PARENTS

30

What is the F-2 Generation?

OFFSPRING FORM THE OFFSPRING

31

What is the expected genotypic ration from a monohybrid cross between 2 individuals heterozygous for one trait?

1:2:1

32

What is the expected phenotypic ratio from a monohybrid cross between 2 individuals heterozygous for one trait?

3:1

33

What is the expected phenotypic ratio from a dihybrid cross between two individuals heterozygous for two traits?

9:3:3:1

34

What is the determined sex if there is a Y chromosome present?

MALE

35

What is the determined sex if there is the absence of a Y chromosome?

FEMALE

36

The __________________ carries additional genes besides the determination of sex

THE X-CHROMOSOME

37

The ____________ DOES NOT carry additional genes

Y CHROMOSOME

38

_______________ states that 2 alleles of one gene may mask the expression of another gene's alleles

EPISTASIS

39

_______________ are the outward expression of a person's genotype and environmental conditions

PHENOTYPES

40

The _____________ predicts the combined probabilities of independent events

MULTIPLICATION LAW

41

What are the, " AND + AND" problems?

MULTIPLICATION LAW PROBLEMS

42

"An individual of genotype AaBbCc is mated with an individual of genotype AABBCc. What fraction of their offspring will be AABbcc?

This is an example of what kind of problem

MULTIPLICATION LAW EXAMPLE

43

In _____________ problems, one must both multiply and add.

ADDITION LAW PROBLEMS

44

The _____________ problems are the "or" problems

ADDITION LAW

45

The ____________ predicts the combined probabilities of mutually exclusive events

ADDITION LAW

46

How do you solve addition law problems?

You have to figure out probability of the 1st event and then add it to the probability of the 2nd event

47

"AaBbCCDdee is mated to AABBccDdEe. What is the possibility of having na offspring thqt is either AaBBCcDDee or AABbCcDdee?"

This is an example of what kind of problem?

ADDITION LAW PROBLEM

48

A _______________ is a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA

MUTATION

49

What are the three possible results of mutations?

SILENT
HARMFUL
USEFUL

50

What are the three types of mutations?

BASE SUBSTITUTION
FRAMESHIFT MUTATION
CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE MUTATION

51

A _____________ results in replacement of one amino acid by another in a protein sequence

BASE SUBSTITUTION MUTATION

52

The _______________ mutation is the simplest kind of mutation

BASE SUBSTITUTION

53

There is a wide range of results (harmless to destroyed protein function) in what kind of mutation?

BASE SUBSTITUTION MUTATION

54

In a ________________ mutation, 1 or 2 nucleotide pairs are inserted into or deleted from the molecule altering the reading of a codon

FRAMESHIFT MUTATION

55

In a _________________ mutation production of entirely new peptide chains begins after the mutation

FRAMESHIFT MUTATION

56

What kind of mutation results in loss of enzyme/protein activity?

FRAMESHIFT MUTATION

57

What kind of mutation occurs due to movement of transposons?

CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE MUTATIONS

58

____________________ mutations are large DNA sequences that jump into the middle of genes

CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE MUTATIONS

59

A ____________________ mutation can disrupt that gene and previously made genes to turn off or on.

CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE MUTATION

60

What are three main causes of mutations?

HOTSPOTS
PREVIOUSLY MUTATED GENES
MUTAGENS

61

What is a hotspot?

A region of DNA that have repeated nucleotides in sequence can cause DNA polymerase to slip

62

A ____________ is a region of DNA that has repeated nucleotides in sequence can cause DNA polymerase to slip

HOTSPOT

63

What are some examples of mutagens?

RADIATION (X-RAYS, UV, GAMMA, COSMIC,)
CHEMICALS
CARCONOGENS

64

What is another name for "Non-Disjunction"?

ANEUPLOIDIES

65

_________________ is the result of an abnormal meiotic division in which chromosomes fail to separate at anaphase

NON-DISJUNCTION

66

The PRESENCE of an extra chromosome or the ABSENCE of a chromosome can be called what three things?

DISOMY
TRISOMY
MONOSOMY

67

_________________ - normal condition- two of each kind

DISOMY

68

_______________- extra chromosome- three of one kind

TRISOMY

69

_____________- lacks one member of a pair of chromosomes

MONOSOMY

70

What is another name for Trisomy 13?

PATAU SYNDROME

71

In ________________ syndrome, there are multiple defects, most cases are not inherited, but occur as random events during the formation of reproductive cells

PATAU SYNDROME

72

In _______________ most do not survive gestation and are spontaneously aborted. Typical death by age 3 months.

PATAU SYNDROME

73

What is another name for Trisomy 18?

EDWARDS SYNDROME

74

In __________________ Syndrome, additional chromosome usually occurs before conception. Ear deformities, heart defects, and muscle deformity.

EDWARDS SYNDROME

75

In _________________ Syndrome, 50% do not survive gestation, and the typical death age is about 1 year.

EDWARDS

76

What is another name for Trisomy 21?

DOWN SYNDROME

77

__________________ Syndrome is a genetic disorder

DOWN SYNDROME

78

________________ syndrome results from males with two X chromosomes. (XXY)

KLINEFELTER SYNDROME

79

Small testes, produce few or no sperm, and are unusually tall.

These are signs of what syndrome?

KLINEFELTER SYNDROME

80

In ____________________ syndrome there is only one X chromosome and no other

TURNER SYNDROME

81

_________________ syndrome develops as females, both internal and external genital structures are underdeveloped

TURNER SYNDROME

82

_________________ syndrome only occurs in females

TURNER SYNDROME

83

The ________________ is a disorder that results in learning problems, delayed emotional maturity, speech/reading problems.

XXY KARYOTYPE

84

What was once thought "criminal tendencies"

XXY KARYOTYPE

85

__________________ Syndrome results from the deletion of part of the #5 chromosome

CRI DU CHAT

86

In babies, this syndrome occurs in a cat-like cry due to abnormal larynx development

CRI DI CHAT SYNDROME

87

In 80% of _____________ syndrome cases, deletion comes from the father's sperm

CRI DI CHAT SYNDROME

88

_________________ results in a defect in amino acid metabolism

PKU

89

In _________________, it inhibits the ability to metabolize Phenylalanine correctly

PKU

90

______________ damages the brain causing severe mental retardation, but appears normal at birth

PKU

91

What disorder results in sickle cells, abnormal hemoglobin molecules, slows blood flow, blocks small vessels, and anemia?

SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

92

_______________ is abnormally viscous mucus that clogs the respiratory passageways

CYSTIC FIBROSIS

93

________________ makes it hard for the cilia to remove the mucus, thus becomes growth culture medium for other bacterial organisms

CYSTIC FIBROSIS

94

50% of people with this disorder live into their twenties

CYSTIC FIBROSIS

95

___________________ attacks the central nervous system, causing blindness, severe retardation, and death before 5 years of age

TAY SACH'S DISEASE

96

_________________ takes an onset between 35-50 years of age

HUNTINGTONS DISEASE

97

_________________ results in severe mental and physical deterioration

HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE

98

People with ________________ have a 50% chance of passing on the trait to any children, and there is not effective treatment to this disease

HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE

99

_________________ is a condition in which there is a lack of a blood clotting factor. Factor 8

HEMOPHILIA

100

In what condition is there severe bleeding from only a slight wound?

HEMOPHILIA

101

What sex is primarily affected from Red-Green Colorblindness?

MALES

102

What term means the "identity of chromosomes"?

KARYOTYPING

103

What are three ways to karyotype chromosomes?

LENGTH
BANDING PATTERN
LOCATION OF CENTROMERE

104

_______________ is the removing of cells in amniotic fluid to analyze

AMNIOCENTESIS

105

__________________ is the taking of cells from chorionic villi

CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING (CVS)

106

What are the two Sex-linked conditions?

HEMOPHILIA
RED-GREEN COLORBLINDNESS

107

What is the Autosomal Dominant Condition talked about in the notetaker?

HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE

108

What are the Autosomal Recessive Conditions discussed in the notetaker?

PKU
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA
CYSTIC FIBROSIS
TAY SACH'S DISEASE

109

What is the Deletion Condition discussed in the notetaker?

CRI DU CHAT SYNDROME

110

What are the Trisomic Conditions discussed in the notetaker?

TRISOMY 13- PATAU SYNDROME
TRISOMY 18- EDWARDS SYNDROM
TRISOMY 21- DOWN'S SYNDROME

111

What is the sex chromosome pair number?

PAIR # 23

112

What are the sex related disorders discussed in the notetaker?

KLINEFELTER SYNNDROM
TURNER SYNDROME
XXY KARYOTYPE