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Flashcards in Biology Unit 2 Deck (143):
1

Organic compounds are _________ bonded ___________ atoms that form the backbone of organic macromolecules

COVALENTLY
CARBON

2

What are the four organic macromolecules?

CARBOHYDRATES
PROTEINS
LIPIDS
NUCLEIC ACIDS

3

_____________ contain carbon bonded to hydrogen

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

4

Organic molecules are usually ________________ than inorganic molecules

LARGER

5

The many bonds of organic molecules results in ______________

A LOT OF ENERGY

6

___________ forms four covalent bonds

CARBON

7

____________ can be single, double, or single

CARBONAL COVALENT BONDS

8

______________ are very strong

CARBONAL COBALENT BONDS

9

___________________ are organic compounds that consist of only carbon and hydrogen

HYDROCARBONS

10

_____________ have the same molecular formula but have a different structural formula

ISOMERS

11

Glucose, fructose, and galactose have a molecular formula of ______________

C_6 H_12 0_6

12

What are the three different types of isomers?

STRUCTURAL ISOMERS
GEOMETRIC ISOMERS
ENTIOMERS

13

_____________ differ in the covalent arrangement of atoms

STRUCTURAL ISOMERS

14

_______________ have the same bond arrangement but different ____________ __________ of atoms

GEOMETRIC ISOMERS
SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT

15

____________ are mirror images

ENOTIOMERS

16

A ____________ is a molecule that acts as a building block for other, larger molecules

MONOMER

17

A monosaccharide and an amino acid is an example of a ________________

MONOMER

18

A ___________ is a molecule composed of two monomers bonded together.

DIMER

19

A disaccharide and dipeptide is an example of a ______________

DIMER

20

_____________ are larger molecules, formed b bonding many monomers together.

POLYMERS

21

Polysaccharides and proteins are examples of _____________

POLYMERS

22

Most macromolecules are _____________

POLYMERS

23

What are group of atoms that determine the types of chemical reactions and associations in which compounds participate?

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

24

_____________ most readily form associations with other molecules

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

25

What represents the part of the molecule that the functional group is attached?

"R"

26

__________ can be many atoms

"R"

27

What are the five functional groups to recognize?

HYDROXYL GROUP
CARBONYL GROUP
CARBOXYL GROUP
AMINO GROUP
PHOSPHATE GROUP

28

What is the name of this functional group based on this bond:
R-O-H

HYDROXYL GROUP

29

What is the name of this functional group based on this bond:
R-C=O

CARBONYL GROUP

30

What is the name of this functional group based on this bond:
R-COOH

CARBOXYL GROUP

31

Name this functional group based on the given bond:
NH2

AMINO GROUP

32

Name this functional group based on the given bond:
PO_4 H_2

PHOSPHATE GROUP

33

What are the two different kind of reactions involving water?

HYDROLYSIS REACTIONS AND CONDENSATION REACTIONS

34

Based on the name, what does hydrolysis mean?

BREAKING DOWN WITH WATER ADDED

35

In the event of a hydrolysis reaction, polymers are broken down into their smaller monomers, ________ water

ADD

36

What is another name for condensation reactions?

DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

37

What is the method that is used to connect monomers and remove water?

CONDENSATION REACTIONS

38

___________ are also referred to as dehydration synthesis reactions

CONDENSATION REACTIONS

39

Carbohydrate means _______________

CARBON AND WATER

40

Carbohydrates contain what three elements?

CARBON
HYDROGEN
OXYGEN

41

What is the elemental ratio of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in carbohydrates? (respectively)

( 1 ::2 :: 1 )

42

____________ are used mainly as an energy source in humans.

CARBOHYDRATES

43

Carbohydrates are used as _______________ in plants and animals. Specifically insects.

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

44

What are the four types of carbohydrates?

SUGARS
STARCHES
CELLULOSE
CHITIN

45

What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?

MONOSACCHARIDES

46

Glucose, fructose, and galactose are examples of ______________

MONOSACHARRIDES

47

What is the most abundant monosaccharide?

GLUCOSE

48

The word disaccharide means _______________

"TWO SUGARS"

49

_____________ are two monosaccharide rings bonded together

DISACCHARIDES

50

Disaccharides are formed by _________________

DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS

51

What are three examples of disaccharides?

MALTOSE
SUCROSE
LACTOSE

52

What two monosaccharides make up maltose?

GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE

53

What two monosaccharides make up sucrose?

GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE

54

What two monosaccharides make up lactose?

GLUCOSE + GALACTOSE

55

_____________ are long chains of monosaccharides

POLYSACCHARIDES

56

What are the four examples of polysaccharides ?

STARCH
GLYCOGEN
CELLULOSE
CHITIN

57

____________ is a polysaccharide composed of alpha glucose only

STARCH

58

__________ is a form of stored glucose found only in plants used as a food reserve

STARCH

59

___________ is longer and more branched than cellulose

STARCH

60

___________ is similar to starch, but is found only in animals

GLYCOGEN

61

What is a form of stored glucose that is used as a food reserve?

GLYCOGEN

62

____________ is the most abundant carbohydrate on Earth

CELLULOSE

63

______________ is a polysaccharide composed of beta glucose

CELLULOSE

64

____________ is the structural component of plant cell walls called fiber and cannot be digested by humans.

CELLULOSE

65

_______________ is shorter and less branched than starches

CELLULOSE

66

What the complex carbohydrate in bug exoskeletons?

CHITIN

67

What is the equation used to calculate molecular mass of a polysaccharide?

X(C6H12O6) - ( X - 1) (H2O)

68

A __________ is a carbohydrate but has much less oxygen

LIPID

69

C21H38O6 is an example of what?

LIPID

70

What are the functions of lipids?

ENERGY STORAGE
HORMONE REGULATION
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF CELL MEMBRANES

71

________________ are insoluble in water

LIPIDS

72

Lipids aren't soluble in water, but what are they soluble in?

CHLOROFORM AND OTHER NONPOLAR SOLVENTS

73

____________ tend be hydrophobic

LIPIDS

74

What are the five general types of lipids?

TRIGLYCERIDES
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
STEROIDS (STEROLS)
WAXES
CAROTENOIDS

75

What are the most abundant lipid in living organisms?

TRIGLYCERIDES

76

Fats and oils are examples of _______________

TRIGLYCERIDES

77

What are the building blocks of triglycerides?

GLYCEROL + 3 FATTY SOMETHINGS

78

What are the three types of triglycerides?

SATURATED FATS
UNSATURATED FATS
TRANS FATS

79

A saturated fat is a ________ atom saturated with ___________ atoms.

CARBON
HYDROGEN

80

Saturated fats are _____________ at rom temperature

SOLID

81

What is the source of saturated fats?

ANIMAL FATS

82

Bacon grease, lard, and butter are examples of _____________

SATURATED FATS

83

______________ is the BAD fat

SATURATED FATS

84

Unsaturated fats are _____________ at room temperature

LIQUID

85

What is the source of unsaturated fats?

PLANT FATS

86

Corn oil and canola oil are examples of _____________

UNSATURATED FATS

87

These are known as the "GOOD" fats

UNSATURATED FATS

88

These fats are:
Technically unsaturated
Mimic properties of saturated fats
More solid at room temperature
Increase risk of cardiovascular disease
"Hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated"

TRANS FATTY ACIDS

89

Phospholipids are composed of a _____________ glycerol head and _____________ fatty acid tails (amphipathic).

HYDROPHILLIC (loves water)
HYDROPHOBIC

90

_____________ are the major components of cell membranes.

PHOSPHOLIPIDS

91

___________ are naturally occurring fat-soluble compounds

STEROIDS

92

Steroids are made of what?

CONNECTED RINGS OF CARBON

93

____________ are components of cell membranes and used to synthesize hormones

STEROIDS

94

Cholesterol, bile salts, and hormones are examples of _________________

STEROIDS

95

A ____________ is a lipid composed of fatty acids and an alcohol other than glycerol.

WAX

96

Lanolin, cutin, bees wax, carnuba, and cerumen are examples of ________________

WAXES

97

_____________ orange and yellow plant pigments

CAROTENOIDS

98

________________ can be converted into vitamin A and then the visual pigment retinal in some animals

CAROTENOIDS

99

Proteins usually contain what four elements?

CARBON
OXYGEN
HYDROGEN
NITROGEN

100

What are the building blocks of proteins?

AMINO ACIDS

101

How many amino acids are there in a protein?

20

102

What holds the amino acids together?

PEPTIDE BONDS

103

What is the most versatile macromolecule?

PROTEINS

104

What are the six functions of proteins?

STRUCTURAL MATERIAL
ENERGY SOURCE
MESSENGERS
CATALYSTS
DEFENSE
TRANSPORT

105

What is an example of protein structural material?

KERATIN

106

What is an example of proteins as an energy source?

MUSCLE CONTRACTION (actin/myosin)

107

What is an example of a protein's function as a messenger?

HORMONES

108

What is an example of proteins catalyst function?

ENZYMES

109

What is an example of protein's defense function?

ANTIBODIES

110

What is an example of protein's transport function?

HEMOGLOBIN

111

__________ is composed of a central carbon atom.

AN AMINO ACID

112

A _____________ is composed of a carboxyl group

AMINO ACID

113

A ____________ is composed of a hydrogen group

AMINO ACID

114

A ______________ is composed of a "r" group

AMINO ACID

115

______________ is small to average size protein

HEMOGLOBIN

116

What determine's the sequence of amino acids in a protein?

DNA

117

What is the term used to describe a change in DNA?

MUTATION

118

A change in the DNA will cause a change in the ___________________

SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS IN A PROTEIN

119

What are the four levels of organization of a protein?

PRIMARY STRUCTURE
SECONDARY STRUCTURE
TERTIARY STRUCTURE
QUATERNARY STRUCTURE

120

____________ is the amino acid sequence

PRIMARY STRUCTURE

121

AA-AA-AA (straight chain) is an example of what level of protein organization?

PRIMARY STRUCTURE

122

The _______________ structure results from hydrogen bonding (either Alpha helix or Pleated sheet)

SECONDARY

123

______________ structure depends on interactions among side chains

TERTIARY

124

______________ structure results from interactions among polypeptides

QUATERNARY STRUCTURE

125

What are the functions of nucleic acids?

TO TRANSFER HEREDITY INFORMATION
TO TRANSFER ENERGY
TO DETERMINE WHAT PROTEINS A CELL MANUFACTURES

126

What are the three classes found in cells?

RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)
ADENOSINE TRI-PHOSPHATE (ATP)

127

What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?

NUCLEOTIDES

128

What are the three components of nucleotides?

5-CARBON SUGAR
NITROGEN BASE
PHOSPHATE

129

Who discovered DNA and RNA?

WATSON, CRICK

130

How many rings do purines have?

2 RINGS

131

What are purines composed of?

ADENINE
GUANINE

132

Pyrimidines consist how many rings?

1 RING

133

Pyrimidines are composed of what ?

CYTOSINE
THYMINE
URACIL (IN RNA)

134

What is the sugar of DNA?

DEOXYRIBOSE

135

What are the four nitrogenous bases of DNA?

ADENINE
THYMINE
GUANINE
CYTOSINE

136

__________ is double stranded

DNA

137

What is the function of DNA?

HOLDS THE GENETIC MATERIAL

138

What is the sugar of RNA?

RIBOSE

139

What are the four nitrogenous bases of RNA?

ADENINE
GUANINE
URACIL
CYTOSINE

140

What is the function of RNA?

TO TRANSPORT DNA CODE DURING PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

141

What is ATP?

IT IS THE ENERGY CURRENCY OF THE CELL

142

What is adenosine composed of?

ADENINE + RIBOSE

143

What is the "high" energy phosphate bond?

THE 3RD OR LAST PHOSPHATE BOND