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Flashcards in Biology Unit 3 Deck (191):
1

____________ are the basic structural / functional unit of life.

CELLS

2

Most _____________ become specialized (differentiated)

CELLS

3

Cells vary in what five ways?

SIZE
SHAPE
FUNCTION
LOCATION
STRUCTURE

4

___________ was an English scientist who first described cells in a cork.

ROBERT HOOKE (1665)

5

Who was the Dutch naturalist that made lenses to observe cells such as bacteria, protists, blood, and sperm?

ANTON VAN LEEWENHOEK (1673)

6

Who observed cells dividing?

VIRCHOW

7

_____________ stated that cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms.

THE CELL THEORY

8

_____________ stated that all cells come from preexisting cells

THE CELL THEORY

9

____________ is limited by cell surface area to volume ratio

CELL SIZE

10

What is cell size limited by?

SURFACE AREA TO VOLUME RATIO

11

In a cell, surface area is the ____________

PLASMA MEMBRANE

12

Cell volume consists of what?

EVERYTHING INSIDE THE CELL

13

The _____________ must be large enough relative to cell volume to regulate the passage of materials

PLASMA MEMBRANE

14

The surface area-to-volume ratio ________________ as a cell grows

DECREASES

15

Cells must remain ____________ to maintain a higher surface area to volume ratio

SMALL

16

The cells size and shape are related to its ___________

FUNCTION

17

What are the two general types of cells?

PROKARYOTIC CELLS
EUKARYOTIC CELLS

18

In __________ cells DNA is not enclosed in a nucleus.

PROKARYOTIC CELLS

19

____________ contain both eubacteria and archaebacteria

PROKARYOTIC CELLS

20

__________________ contain all other known organisms except eubacteria and archaebacteria.

EUKARYOTIC CELLS

21

In ____________ , there are highly organized membrane-enclosed organelles

EUKARYOTIC CELLS

22

What are the three basic parts of a cell?

CELL MEMBRANE
NUCLEUS
CYTOPLASM

23

What is the outermost boundary of an animal cell?

CELL MEMBRANE

24

What regulates movement into and out of the cell?

CELL MEMBRANE

25

What controls the action of the cell?

NUCLEUS

26

The _______________ is a semi-fluid liquid between cell membrane and nucleus which contains organelles.

CYTOPLASM

27

The _________________ maintains integrity of cell by coming movement in/out

CELL MEMBRANE

28

The ____________ is "selectively permeable"

CELL MEMBRANE

29

The ____________ is very thin and flexible

CELL MEMBRANE

30

The _________________ is capable of minor repair but extensive damage results in cell death

CELL MEMBRANE

31

The cell membrane provides a ________________ for many reactions because of enzymes present in the membrane surface.

WORKING SURFACE

32

The cell membrane allow cells to ______________ like a dam

STORE ENERGY

33

What is the structure of the cell membrane composed of?

PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
PROTEINS

34

What is the phospholipid bilayer composed of?

WATER SOLUBLE, HYDROPHILLIC "HEADS" FORM THE SURFACE, AND WATER INSOLUBLE, HYDROPHOBIC "TAILS" FORM THE INTERIOR

35

The ______________ permeable to lipid soluble substances

PHOSPHOLIPIDS

36

Proteins are ______________ that turn the cell on or off

RECEPTORS

37

Proteins ____________ by ways of pores, channels, carriers that move substances which can't pass through the lipid layer

TRANSPORT

38

The _____________ of proteins speed up reactions

ENZYMES

39

BE ABLE TO DRAW THE FLUID MOSAIC MODEL

YOU GOT THAT DUMBASS ?

40

The control center of the cell

NUCLEUS

41

The _________________ is the nuclear envelope

NUCLEUS

42

The nuclear envelope has what kind of membrane?

POROUS DOUBLE MEMBRANE

43

The _____________ separates nucleoplasm from cytoplasm

NUCLEAR ENVELOPE

44

The _____________ is a dense collection of RNA and proteins

NUCLEOLUS

45

The nucleolus is the site of ______________ production

RIBOSOME

46

____________ are fibers of DNA and proteins

CHROMATIN

47

What stores information for the synthesis of proteins?

CHROMATIN

48

What is the jelly-like fluid that holds the cellular organelles and occupies the space between the nucleus and the cell membrane?

CYTOPLASM

49

What is the watery component in the cytoplasm?

CYTOSOL

50

Cytoplasm contains _____________

CYTOSOL

51

What is the "information highway" ?

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

52

The _____________ is a network of folded internal membranes in the cytosol

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

53

The endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the _______________________ and _________________

CELL MEMBRANE
NUCLEAR MEMBRANE

54

The ___________________ compartmentalizes and manufactures

ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

55

What organelle is the surface area for chemical reactions?

THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

56

What are the two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum?

SMOOTH ER
ROUGH ER

57

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site of ______________ and ____________________

LIPID SYNTHESIS
DETOXIFYING ENZYMES

58

Cells of the liver have a lot of what kind of endoplasmic reticulum?

SMOOTH ER

59

The _______________ is an attachment place for ribosomes

ROUGH ER

60

Ribosomes manufacture what?

PROTEINS

61

Ribosomes are tiny, spherical granules composed of ______________ and ____________

PROTEIN
RNA

62

_____________ are free floating or connect to the endoplasmic reticulum

RIBOSOMES

63

Ribosomes are the site of ________________

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

64

Also known as dictysome

GOLGI APPARATUS (COMPLEX)

65

The Golgi complex is the _____________ that processes proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids

"WAREHOUSE"

66

In animal cells, Golgi complex also manufactures ________________

LYSOSOMES

67

In plant cells, the Golgi bodies secrete the ______________ during mitosis.

NEW CELL WALLS

68

What are the "stomachs of the cell" ?

LYSOSOMES

69

Lysosomes are "suicide sacs" loaded with _______________

ENZYMES

70

White blood cells have many _____________ to defend the body and recycle dead cells

LYSOSOMES

71

Lysosomes are not found in ______________

PLANT CELLS

72

What is the organelle with fluid filled sacs with many and various functions?

VACUOLE

73

The _____________ may also contain stored food, salts, pigments, and metabolic wastes

VACUOLE

74

Plant cells have a very large _____________

"CENTRAL VACUOLE"

75

_____________ have multiple, smaller vacuoles

ANIMAL CELLS

76

What is the "powerhouse of the cell" ?

MITOCHONDRIA

77

What organelle is the center for aerobic cellular respiration and energy conversion?

MITOCHONDRIA

78

The __________ is enclosed by a double membrane

MITOCHONDRIA

79

What are the folds inside the mitochondria called?

CRISTAE

80

What is the fluid inside the mitochondria called?

MATRIX

81

_______________ are plastids that carry out photosynthesis

CHLOROPLASTS

82

What organelle is typically found in leaves and green stems of plants and also in algae?

CHLOROPLASTS

83

The inner membrane o chloroplasts encloses a fluid called what?

STROMA

84

The inner membrane of chloroplasts form into disk shaped structures called what?

THYLAKOIDS

85

Thylakoids are arranged into stacks called ______________

GRANA

86

What is another name for leucoplasts?

AMYLOPLASTS

87

What organelle is the colorless plastids that usually contain starch?

LEUCOPLASTS

88

_____________ are plastids that contain coloring pigment in plants, flowers and fruits, other than chlorophyll.

CHROMOPHYLL

89

What is the internal framework of a cell called?

CYTOSKELETON

90

What makes up the cytoskeleton?

MICROTUBULES
MICROFILAMENTS

91

What is the protein of a microtubule?

TUBULIN (HOLLOW TUBES)

92

What has the "structural role" in the formation of the cytoskeleton?

MICROTUBULE

93

The _____________ in the cytoskeleton plays a part in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis

MICROTUBUELS

94

The _____________ is a structural component of flagella and cilia

MICROTUBULE

95

What is the protein of microfilaments?

ACTIN

96

The component of the cytoskeleton that is flexible, and is the mechanical support for cell structure

MICROFILAMENT

97

What organelle has 9 sets of 3 attached microtubules?

CENTRIOLES

98

These organelles form right angles to each other to from centrosomes

CENTRIOLES

99

__________________ form a hollow cylinder near the nucleus

CENTRIOLES

100

____________________ form spindle fibers during mitosis in animal cells

CENTRIOLES

101

What are the organelles that are thin, movable structures that project from cell surface?

CILIA
FLAGELLA

102

Cilia are _______________

SMALL AND NUMEROUS

103

Flagella are _______________

LONGER AND FEW IN NUMBER

104

What is the definition of cell transport?

THE MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS INTO OR OUT OF THE CELL

105

What is the ability of a membrane to allow things to get through?

PERMEABILITY

106

What are the three types of permeability?

PERMEABLE
IMPERMEABLE
SEMIPERMEABLE

107

What are five factors that influence permeability?

SIZE OF MOVING MOLEULE
LIPID SOLUBILITY
POLARITY (CHARGE)
CONCENTRATION DIFFERENCE
PRESENCE OF CARRIER MOLECULES

108

What are the two types of movements into and out of the cell?

PASSIVE PROCESSES
ACTIVE PROCESSES

109

__________________ processes require no cellular energy

PASSIVE

110

In passive processes, solute moves from areas of ____________ concentration to _______________

HIGH
LOW

111

Simple Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis
Filtration
Dialysis
These are all examples of.......

PASSIVE (PHYSICAL PROCESSES)

112

____________ processes require cellular energy

ACTIVE

113

In active processes, solute moves from areas of ______________ concentration to ____________ concentration

LOW
HIGH

114

Active transport
Endocytosis
Exocytosis
These are all examples of......

ACTIVE PROCESSES

115

What is the movement of substances from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration?

SIMPLE DIFFUSION

116

What are the four factors that affect the rate of diffusion?

SIZE OF PARTICLE
SHAPE OF PARTICLE
ELECTRICAL CHARGE OF PARTICLES
TEMPERATURE

117

Facilitative diffusion uses _______________ to pass through the cell membrane

PROTEINS

118

________________ is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from regions of higher water concentration to regions of lower water concentration due to the presence of a solute

OSMOSIS

119

What kind of membrane does water move through in osmosis?

A selectively permeable membrane

120

In osmosis, water is pulled through the membrane by a ______________

SOLUTE

121

What is the substance dissolved in a liquid called?

SOLUTE

122

What is the liquid?

SOLVENT

123

What is a solution composed of?

SOLVENT + SOLUTE

124

Water moves toward a ________________ concentration of ______________

HIGHER
SOLUTES

125

Water passes through selectively permeable membrane from regions of _________________ water concentration to ___________________ water concentration.

HIGHER
LOWER

126

What is osmosis driven by?

OSMOTIC PRESSURE

127

_________________ is determined by the amount of dissolved substances in the solution.

OSMOTIC PRESSURE

128

______________ = the solute concentration inside/outside of the cell

ISOTONIC SOLUTION

129

Cells placed in a solution that is isotonic to them will be in ___________________

EQUILLIBRIUM

130

In an ______________ water moves into and out of the cell at the same rate, having no NET movement

ISOTONIC SOLUTION

131

In a ________________ the surrounding fluid has a higher solute concentration than the concentration within the cell

HYPERTONIC SOLUTION

132

Cells placed in a hypertonic solution will lose water and __________________

SHRINK

133

In a ______________ there is a NET movement out of the cell

HYPERTONIC SOLUTION

134

In a hypotonic solution, the surrounding fluid has a _____________ solute concentration than inside the cell

LOWER

135

Cells placed in a hypotonic solution will gain water and _____________

SWELL

136

What is an example of a cell swelling?

CYTOLISIS

137

What are two examples of cell shrinkage?

CRENATION (animal)
PLASYMOLYSIS (plant)

138

________________ IS THE INTERNL HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE IN WALLED CELLS SUCH AS PLANT CELLS

turgor pressure

139

What holds plants upright?

TURGOR PRESSURE

140

Increased turgor pressure in a plant cell causes ____________

TURGIDITY

141

________________ is the separating of the plasma membrane and the cell wall

PLASYMOLYSIS

142

____________ is a special type of diffusion

DIALYSIS

143

Dialysis separates _______________

SMALLER PARTICLES FROM LARGER PARTICLES

144

What is dialysis driven by?

CONCENTRATION GRADIENT

145

Cells expend _______________ to carry on physiological (active) processes

METABOLIC ENERGY

146

____________ requires energy

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

147

This is when a cell engulfs a substance by forming a vesicle around the substance

ENDOCYTOSIS

148

What are the two types of endocytosis?

PINOCYTOSIS
PHAGOCYTOSIS

149

What kind of substance is pinocytosis?

MOSTLY WATER

150

What kind of substance is phagocytosis?

SUBSTANCE IS A SOLID

151

What is the reverse of endocytosis?

EXOCYTOSIS

152

In _____________ substances in a vesicle fuse with cell membrane and release contents outside of the cell

EXOCYTOSIS

153

The release of neurotransmitters from nerve cells
waste products
proteins/hormones
These are all examples of ......

EXOCYTOSIS

154

What are the three functions of intercellular junctions?

FORM STRONG CONNECTIONS WITH EACH OTHER::
PREVENT PASSAGE OF MATERIALS::
ALLOW FOR COMMUNICATION BETWEEN CELLS::

155

What are the four types of intercellular junctions?

TIGHT JUNCTIONS
DSMOSOMES
GAP JUNCTIONS
PLASMODESMOTA

156

In ___________, cells are fused with limited space

TIGHT JUNCTIONS

157

__________________ are located among cells that form linings (intestinal and blood-brain barrier)

TIGHT JUNCTIONS

158

_______________ form "spot welds" between cells

DESMOSOMES

159

Desmosomes are located _____________

AMONG OUTER SKIN CELLS

160

______________ are the tubular channels between cells

GAP JUNCTIONS

161

__________________ are located in cardiac muscle cells and the pancreas

GAP JUNCTIONS

162

Plasmodesmota are found in_____________

PLANT CELLS

163

________________ allow molecules/ions to pass through but no organelles

PLASMODESMOTA

164

The amount of energy required to break a bond

BOND ENERGY

165

The total (potential) bond energy In a system

ENTHALPY

166

Enthalpy is the _____________ in molecules

TOTAL ENERGY

167

The transfer of electrons from one compound to another is equivalent to ______________

ENERGY TRANSFER

168

________________ is a process where energy (as electrons) is released (lost)

OXIDATION

169

_______________ is a process where energy (as electrons) is accepted (gained)

REDUCTION

170

What are two reactions that are metabolic reactions?

PHOTOSYNTHESIS
CELLULAR RESPIRATION

171

Photosynthesis is a ____________ reaction

ENDERGONIC

172

Cellular Respiration is a _______________

EXERGONIC REACTION

173

What is a metabolic process driven by the sun?

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

174

12H2O + 6CO2 ---> 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O

PHOTOSYNTHESIS EQUATION

175

What is the main route by which carbon and energy enter web of life?

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

176

What are the two reactions photosynthesis consist of?

LIGHT DEPENDENT
LIGHT INDEPENDENT

177

The light dependent reaction occurs in __________________

THYLAKOID MEMBRANE

178

_____________________ harvest sunlight which excite electrons and boost them to higher energy levels

PHOTOSYSTEMS 1 AND 2

179

_______________ is the "synthesis" part of photosynthesis

THE LIGHT INDEPENDENT STAGE

180

The light independent stage occurs in the _____________

STROMA

181

ATP donates energy to sites that build __________

GLUCOSE

182

Glucose is produced in what photosynthesis reaction?

LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION

183

NADPH donates H in what photosynthesis reaction?

LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION

184

Sunlight is trapped in what photosynthesis reaction?

LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION

185

Oxygen is released in what photosynthesis reaction?

LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION

186

ATP is made in what photosynthesis reaction?

LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION

187

Water splits in what photosynthesis reaction?

LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION

188

Carbon dioxide is used in what photosynthesis reaction?

LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION

189

What photosynthesis reaction occurs in the stroma?

LIGHT INDEPENDENT REACTION

190

What photosynthesis reaction occurs in the thylakoids?

LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION

191

NADPH is made in what photosynthesis reaction?

LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION