Flashcards in Biomacromolecules Deck (114)
What are the two types of nucleotides?
Where is DNA found in prokaryotic cells?
DNA is found on a single chromosome in the cytoplasm. RNA is found either in the cytoplasm or in the ribosomes.m
Where is DNA found in eukaryotic cells?
DNA is found in nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. RNA is found in the nucleus, cytoplasm and ribosomes.
Name all five nitrogenous bases
Which of the bases are purines
Which of the bases are pyrimidines
What are the bonds called that link two nucleotides?
Examples of disaccharides
Examples of monosaccharides
Function of carbohydrates
-Source of energy
Sugars consisting of one sugar unit
Sugars composed of two sugar units
Polymer made of many monomers (sugars) linked together by glycosidic bonds
Difference between simple and complex carbohydrates
Simples is containing one or two sugar molecules and complex is many sugar units.
Examples of polysaccharides
What are the two types of sugars?
What are the three types of RNA?
What are nucleotides made up of?
How many carbons are present on a sugar of a nucleotide.
Explain Lipid Formation
Lipids are formed when fatty acids combine with glycerol. When this happens a water molecule is released.
Functions of Lipids
-Components of cell membrane
-Specific biological roles e.g hormones, vitamins and co-enzymes.
Explain lipids solubility in water
Lipids are insoluble in water meaning they are non-polar and are hydrophobic.
Like dissolves ...................?
What are the polymers of bio macromolecules
What is a monomer of nucleic acids?
Define Quaternary Structure
Multiple polypeptide chains
Define Globular Proteins
Compact shape with random coils, irregular structure regions allow polypeptide chain to loop and fold.
List the four different structures of proteins.
Define Fatty Acids
Hydrocarbon chains that usually contain an even number of carbon atoms.
What are proteins help together by?
What is the structure of amino acids
-Amino Group (NH2)
Name the three types of secondary structures
-Beta Pleated Sheets
Explain the tertiary structure
-Also known as the confirmation shape it is a 3-D structure that has become this way due to coiling and folding
-Single Polypeptide chain
What atoms are in lipids?
Define Fibourous Proteins
Repetitive structure with alpha helix and beta pleated sheets.
What atoms are in proteins
How many amino acids are there?
20 amino acids
What are amino acids
-Monomers for proteins
What are the elements that make up carbohydrates?
How many strands does DNA have?
How many strands does RNA have?
Function and example of glycolipid
Recognition sites on plasma membranes, e.g glycolipid
Function and example of steroids
Component of signalling molecules
e.g cholesterol, sex hormones
Functions of Proteins
Explain the R group in the amino acids
The R group is responsible for the chemical properties of the amino acids
List the three important amino acids
A peptide vs a polypeptide
A peptide is a small number of amino acids
A polypeptide is a large amount of amino acids
How are polypeptides formed?
Explain saturated fatty acids vs unsaturated
Unsaturated fatty acids have
-a low melting point
-usually liquid at room temperature
-hydrocarbon chains are the same length
Saturated fatty acids
-solid at room temperature
-high melting point
-different lengths of hydro-carbon chains
What is the process called when polymers are joined and taken apart?
Explain the primary structure of a protein
Chain of amino acids in a specific sequence joined by peptide bonds
Function and example of phospholipids
Structural component of plasma membrane
Function and example of a triglyceride
Function: Energy storage
e.g fats and oils
Function of fatty acids and examples
Energy storage and sub-unit of other lipids
e.g stearin acid, Oleic acids
What type of molecule is water
What is the type of bonding between water molecules?
Define hydrophobic substances
Substances that are insoluble and do not dissolve in water. they are known as non-polar substances. They can't form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules
Define hydrophilic substances
Molecules that are readily dissolved in water are polar molecules. They can dissolve due to their developments I. hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules.
How are monomers joined?
What is lost or gained in a condensation reaction
A water molecule is lost
What occurs in a hydrolysis reaction?
Bonds between monomers are broken
What is lost or gained in a hydrolysis reaction
A water molecule is added
Large molecules that play a role in the structure and function of cells.
Small molecules in which are repetitively linked together to create long strands known as polymers.
Define a monomer
Repeating units that serve as the building blocks and sub-units of polymers
What elements make up carbohydrates?
Are monosaccharides soluble in water?
What type of sugar is glucose?
What is glucose used to make?
What type of sugars are ribose/deoxy
Bond that holds two monosaccahrides together
What are the two types of polysaccracrides
Storage-Starch, glycogen (long unbrachned chain)
Structural- cellulose, chitin (branched polymers)
What is the role of starch?
Storage molecule in plants
Role of glycogen
Storage molecule in animals
Role of chitin
Can be found in the exskelton of some insects
What are the two types of glucose
What is sucrose comprised of?
What is maltose comprised of
What is lactose comprised of
Characteristics of lipids
What are phospholipids comprised of?
Two fatty acid tails with a glycerol head containing phosphate
Is a phospholipid hydrophobic or hydrophilic
Both one at either end
What is the role of waxes
-Solids at room temp
-Waterproof coating on leaves, skin, hair, feathes
What are fats and oils?
What are triglycerides made up of?
Three fatty aci tails attached to one glycerol molecule
What compounds are steriods based off?
What is the role of nucleic acids
Store information that determines how organisms develop and function.
What are the monomers of nuclei acids
What are the elements in nucleic acids
What is a nucleotide made up of
What is the DNA code
What sugar does DNA have?
What are the role of nucleic acids
Carry instructions for making proteins by determining the amino acid sequence of the protein produced at the ribosome.
DNA strands are.....
What are bases held together by
Weak hydrogen bonds
What is one nucloetide strand known as
a template strand
Define a gene
a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a particular protein
How is RNA synthesised
From a DNA template in a process known as transcription
What are the three forms of RNA
What is the role of mRNA
Carries the DNA code to the rribosome for the purpose of making the desired protein
What is the role of tRNA
Carries amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis
What is the role of rRNA
Structural component of ribosomes
What joins when two nucleotides are joined together
-Phosphate group of one covalently bonds to the deoxyribose sugar of the next
What elements make up proteins
What are the monomer of polypeptides known as?
What are the three components that make up an amino acid?
What is the R group in amino acids resposinbile for?
Variation in the proteins and the final shape of them
Physical and chemical properties of the R group determines the characteristics of the amino acid
Where are hydrophilic amino acids and hydrophobi acids located
What does condensation polymersation form?
Peptide bonds between amino group
what is the peptide bond?
What do the secondary structure of proteins consist of
Localised coiling and foling of segments in a polypeptide chain
How do the coils and folds hold between segments of the polypeptide chain in the secondary structure?
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
3-D structure also known as the confirmation shape due to coiling and foldinng