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Flashcards in Biomacromolecules Deck (114)
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1

What are the two types of nucleotides?

DNA
RNA

2

Where is DNA found in prokaryotic cells?

DNA is found on a single chromosome in the cytoplasm. RNA is found either in the cytoplasm or in the ribosomes.m

3

Where is DNA found in eukaryotic cells?

DNA is found in nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. RNA is found in the nucleus, cytoplasm and ribosomes.

4

Name all five nitrogenous bases

Adenine
Guanine
Cyotsine
Thymine
Uracil

5

Which of the bases are purines

Adenine
Guanine

6

Which of the bases are pyrimidines

Thymine
Uracil
Cytocine

7

What are the bonds called that link two nucleotides?

Phosphodiester

8

Examples of disaccharides

Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose

9

Examples of monosaccharides

Glucose
Fructose
deoxyribose

10

Function of carbohydrates

-Source of energy
-Storing energy
-Structural
-Chemical Reactions

11

Define monosaccharides

Sugars consisting of one sugar unit

12

Define disaccharides

Sugars composed of two sugar units

13

Define Polysaccharides

Polymer made of many monomers (sugars) linked together by glycosidic bonds

14

Difference between simple and complex carbohydrates

Simples is containing one or two sugar molecules and complex is many sugar units.

15

Examples of polysaccharides

Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
Chitin

16

What are the two types of sugars?

Deoxyribose
Ribose

17

What are the three types of RNA?

mRNA
tRNA
rRNA

18

What are nucleotides made up of?

-Suagr
-Base (Nitrogenous)
-Phosphate Group

19

How many carbons are present on a sugar of a nucleotide.

5

20

Explain Lipid Formation

Lipids are formed when fatty acids combine with glycerol. When this happens a water molecule is released.

21

Functions of Lipids

-Energy Storage
-Components of cell membrane
-Thermal Insulation
-Specific biological roles e.g hormones, vitamins and co-enzymes.

22

Explain lipids solubility in water

Lipids are insoluble in water meaning they are non-polar and are hydrophobic.

23

Like dissolves ...................?

Like

24

What are the polymers of bio macromolecules

-Polysaccaharides
-Proteins
-Nucleic Acids

25

What is a monomer of nucleic acids?

Nucleotides

26

Define Quaternary Structure

Multiple polypeptide chains

e.g haemoglobin

27

Define Globular Proteins

Compact shape with random coils, irregular structure regions allow polypeptide chain to loop and fold.

28

List the four different structures of proteins.

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quaternary

29

Define Fatty Acids

Hydrocarbon chains that usually contain an even number of carbon atoms.

30

What are proteins help together by?

Peptide Bonds

31

What is the structure of amino acids

-Amino Group (NH2)
-Carboxly (COOH)
-R Group

32

Name the three types of secondary structures

-Alpha Helix
-Beta Pleated Sheets
-Random coils

33

Explain the tertiary structure

-Also known as the confirmation shape it is a 3-D structure that has become this way due to coiling and folding
-Single Polypeptide chain

34

What atoms are in lipids?

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen

35

Define Fibourous Proteins

Repetitive structure with alpha helix and beta pleated sheets.

e.g keratin

36

What atoms are in proteins

SPONCH

37

How many amino acids are there?

20 amino acids

38

What are amino acids

-Monomers for proteins

39

What are the elements that make up carbohydrates?

CHO

40

How many strands does DNA have?

2

41

How many strands does RNA have?

1

42

Function and example of glycolipid

Recognition sites on plasma membranes, e.g glycolipid

43

Function and example of steroids

Component of signalling molecules
e.g cholesterol, sex hormones

44

Functions of Proteins

Transport
Enzymes
Antibodies
Contractile
Proteins
Hormones
Exported Proteins
Receptors
Structural Proteins

45

Explain the R group in the amino acids

The R group is responsible for the chemical properties of the amino acids

46

List the three important amino acids

Proline
Glycine
Cystenine

47

A peptide vs a polypeptide

A peptide is a small number of amino acids

A polypeptide is a large amount of amino acids

48

How are polypeptides formed?

Condensation polymerisation

49

Explain saturated fatty acids vs unsaturated

Unsaturated fatty acids have
-a low melting point
-usually liquid at room temperature
-hydrocarbon chains are the same length
Saturated fatty acids
-solid at room temperature
-high melting point
-different lengths of hydro-carbon chains

50

What is the process called when polymers are joined and taken apart?

JOINING
condensation polymerisation
SEPERATING
hydrolysis

51

Explain the primary structure of a protein

Chain of amino acids in a specific sequence joined by peptide bonds

52

Function and example of phospholipids

Structural component of plasma membrane
e.g phospholipids

53

Function and example of a triglyceride

Function: Energy storage
e.g fats and oils

54

Function of fatty acids and examples

Energy storage and sub-unit of other lipids
e.g stearin acid, Oleic acids

55

What type of molecule is water

Polar

56

What is the type of bonding between water molecules?

Hydrogen

57

Define hydrophobic substances

Substances that are insoluble and do not dissolve in water. they are known as non-polar substances. They can't form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules

58

Define hydrophilic substances

Molecules that are readily dissolved in water are polar molecules. They can dissolve due to their developments I. hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules.

59

How are monomers joined?

Condensation reactions

60

What is lost or gained in a condensation reaction

A water molecule is lost

61

What occurs in a hydrolysis reaction?

Bonds between monomers are broken

62

What is lost or gained in a hydrolysis reaction

A water molecule is added

63

Define Biomacromolecules

Large molecules that play a role in the structure and function of cells.

64

Define polymer

Small molecules in which are repetitively linked together to create long strands known as polymers.

65

Define a monomer

Repeating units that serve as the building blocks and sub-units of polymers

66

What elements make up carbohydrates?

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen

67

Are monosaccharides soluble in water?

Yes

68

What type of sugar is glucose?

Monosacharide
Hexose

69

What is glucose used to make?

starch
glycogen
cellulose
chitin

70

What type of sugars are ribose/deoxy

pentose

71

Bond that holds two monosaccahrides together

Glycosidic bond

72

What are the two types of polysaccracrides

Storage-Starch, glycogen (long unbrachned chain)
Structural- cellulose, chitin (branched polymers)

73

What is the role of starch?

Storage molecule in plants

74

Role of glycogen

Storage molecule in animals

75

Role of chitin

Can be found in the exskelton of some insects

76

What are the two types of glucose

alpha
beta

77

What is sucrose comprised of?

Glucose
Fructose

78

What is maltose comprised of

Glucose
Glucose

79

What is lactose comprised of

Glucose
Galactose

80

Characteristics of lipids

-insoluble
-non-polar
-hypdrophobic

81

What are phospholipids comprised of?

Two fatty acid tails with a glycerol head containing phosphate

82

Is a phospholipid hydrophobic or hydrophilic

Both one at either end

83

What is the role of waxes

-Solids at room temp
-Waterproof coating on leaves, skin, hair, feathes

84

What are fats and oils?

Triglycerides

85

What are triglycerides made up of?

Three fatty aci tails attached to one glycerol molecule

86

What compounds are steriods based off?

Chloesterol

87

What is the role of nucleic acids

Store information that determines how organisms develop and function.

88

What are the monomers of nuclei acids

nucleotides

89

What are the elements in nucleic acids

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Phospohrous

90

What is a nucleotide made up of

Pentose sugar
Nitrogenous base
Phosphate group

91

What is the DNA code

universal

92

What sugar does DNA have?

deoxyribose

93

What are the role of nucleic acids

Carry instructions for making proteins by determining the amino acid sequence of the protein produced at the ribosome.

94

DNA strands are.....

Antiparralelele

95

What are bases held together by

Weak hydrogen bonds

96

What is one nucloetide strand known as

a template strand

97

Define a gene

a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a particular protein

98

How is RNA synthesised

From a DNA template in a process known as transcription

99

What are the three forms of RNA

mRNA
tRNA
rRNA

100

What is the role of mRNA

Carries the DNA code to the rribosome for the purpose of making the desired protein

101

What is the role of tRNA

Carries amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis

102

What is the role of rRNA

Structural component of ribosomes

103

What joins when two nucleotides are joined together

-Phosphate group of one covalently bonds to the deoxyribose sugar of the next

104

What elements make up proteins

C
H
O
N
S

105

What are the monomer of polypeptides known as?

Amino acids

106

What are the three components that make up an amino acid?

-Amino group
-Carboxly group
-R group

107

What is the R group in amino acids resposinbile for?

Variation in the proteins and the final shape of them
Physical and chemical properties of the R group determines the characteristics of the amino acid

108

Where are hydrophilic amino acids and hydrophobi acids located

philic-surface
phobic-interior

109

What does condensation polymersation form?

Peptide bonds between amino group

110

what is the peptide bond?

CO-NH

111

What do the secondary structure of proteins consist of

Localised coiling and foling of segments in a polypeptide chain

112

How do the coils and folds hold between segments of the polypeptide chain in the secondary structure?

Hydrogen bonds

113

What is the tertiary structure of a protein?

3-D structure also known as the confirmation shape due to coiling and foldinng

114

what types of bonding occur in the tertiary structure?

-ionic
-hydrogen
-disulfide
-hydrophobic interactions