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Flashcards in Apoptosis Deck (8)
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1

Define Apoptosis

Programmed cell death

2

How many cells are destined to die from apoptosis

99%

3

What are the enzymes called that digest the cell when it is undergoing apoptosis

Caspases

4

What do dying cells in apoptosis prodce>

Signals that macrophages will recognise and will then engulf the cells remain

5

Explain the process of apoptosis when the signals are from inside the cell

1. Serious damage inside the cell
2. Activates the proteins on the outside of the mitochondria's membrane
3. Mitochondrial membrane ruptures
4. Activates caspases enter nuclear pores and chop up DNA
5. Produce signals for macrophages

6

Why may be some reasons that a cell will be instructed to undergo apoptosis from an external signal?

1. If cell has not developed fully
2. If there are more cells than required
3. If cells have outlived there usefullness

7

What is the process of apoptosis when the signal is recieved externally

1. Caspases are activated, dying cells release signals to activate phagocytes
2. Cells begin to shrink and develop small bumps on surface
3. Caspases enter nuclear pores and chop up DNA and proteins
4. Small fragments bind to phagocytes and are engulfed
5. Phagocytes release cytokines to prevent inflammation.

8

Apoptosis Summary

1. Cell recieves signal to die either externally or internally
2. Receptors receive information causing caspases to be produced (they start to destroy the proteins and DNA within the cell)
3. Messages sent to the surrounding phagocytes
4. Cell shrinks and develops small bumps
5. Cell breaks open and loses its contents
6. Phagocytes engulf cell fragments