Flashcards in Disease Deck (63)
Disease causing celllular or non-cellualr agent
Any abnormality or failure in the body enabllibng it to not function properly
An organism that lives on a host. This use the host for foood/shelter and contributng nothing to the hosts welfare
List the ways disease can be transmitted
-Direct contact (touching kissing etc etc)
-Exchange of bodily fluids
-Indirect contact (bed linen)
-Air e.g sneezing
What are vectors
Oraganisms that carry disease
Are prions cellular or non-cellular
Where are prions produced
What do prions look like?
Folded pieces of protein
What do prions cause?
Degenerative neurological diseases
Where are prions located
What are the two ways that you can get a prion infection
-Accquired infection: e.g contaminated meat
Is there a treatment/cure for those who are affected by prions
What is a normal prion protein referred to as?
How do prions spread when in the body?
When a defective prions comes in contact with a normal prion it converts it into a infectious prion protein. This is all via simple contact.
What do prions eventually cause the cell to do?
What would you see in a deceased persons brain who was infected with prions and why?
Holes due to the prions bursting
Can prions be destroyed with heat or chemicals?
Are viruses cellular or non-cellular
What do viruses consist of?
A core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat also known as a capsid
What organisms do viruses infect?
Do viruses need to reproduce?
What shape are most viruses?
Where can viruses only reproduce?
Inside a host cell
How do viruses invade host cells>
-Piercing cells surface
-Attaching to receptor sites and inject their genetic components
-A cell may take a virus in via endocytosis
-Injected genetic material will provide instructions to create new viral proteins
-injected material may lie hidden in the host cell before becoming active
What are bacteriophages?
A specific group of virsues that infect bacteria.
-they land and inject there DNA
What are some examples of viruses
-DNA-smallpox, herpes, warts
-RNA-hepatitis, influenza, aids
What does HIV attach to and attack
Helper T cells and macrophages
What are viroids made up of?
Short pieces of naked RNA
Uni-cellular organisms that are all eurkaryotic
What do bacteria not have?
No membrane bound organelles or a nucleus
What do Bacteria have structurally
-Single stranded chromosome
How do bacteria replicate?
What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?
What happens in binary fission?
Bacteria replicate their own DNA then split in 2 One cell divides every 20 minutes
What happens when bacteria is exposed to extreme conditions such as heat and dryness?
Forms a protective coating also known as a spore
Are all bacteria pathogens?
No some are used in the gut and others for digestion
How is bacteria transferred
Via mucus, food, air, contact and vectors
Example of bacterial disease
Are bacteria cellular?
Are protozoa cellular?
What are protozoa
They are uni-cellular eurkaryotic organisms
How do protozoa reproduce?
Asexually or sexually
What are the three classes of protozoa? and give an example for each
Are fungi unicellular or multicellular?
They can be both
What are the three classifications of fungi in humans
-fungi -like yeasts
What are worms
Multi cellular and eukaryotic
How do worms replicate
What are arthropods?
Insects usually a vector carrying a disease
What are oomycetes
Pathogens which cause diseases in plants
Define a non-infectious disease
Diseases that cannot be transmitted from one individual to another
Define an infectious disease
Disease cause by another organism, can be transmitted from one organism to another
The invasion and growth of harmful cellular/non-cellular agent within the body of a host
Host to a pathogen, does not expereice signs or symptoms but can trasmit diseas to others
Define infectious disease
Caused by the invasion and growth of a pathogen within an organism
the organism in or upon which a parasite feeds
Abnormal and infectious pieces of proteins
Can all humans make prion proteins
yes all humans contain dna that can be made into prions
What happens when the genetic material has been injected into the cell from a viirus
Viral DNA reprograms the host cell chromosome to make many new viral copies
rapid spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time
INfectious diease that has spead through human populations across a large region
What are virioids
Short pieces of naked RNA
What can bacteria produce?
toxins which can be toxic to humans