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Flashcards in Disease Deck (63)
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1

Define Pathogen

Disease causing celllular or non-cellualr agent

2

Define Disease

Any abnormality or failure in the body enabllibng it to not function properly

3

Define Parasite

An organism that lives on a host. This use the host for foood/shelter and contributng nothing to the hosts welfare

4

List the ways disease can be transmitted

-Direct contact (touching kissing etc etc)
-Exchange of bodily fluids
-Water
-Indirect contact (bed linen)
-Air e.g sneezing
-Food
-Vectors

5

What are vectors

Oraganisms that carry disease

6

Are prions cellular or non-cellular

Non-cellular

7

Where are prions produced

Nerve Cells

8

What do prions look like?

Folded pieces of protein

9

What do prions cause?

Degenerative neurological diseases

10

Where are prions located

Neurons

11

What are the two ways that you can get a prion infection

-Accquired infection: e.g contaminated meat
-Hereditary trait

12

Is there a treatment/cure for those who are affected by prions

NO

13

What is a normal prion protein referred to as?

PrPc

14

How do prions spread when in the body?

When a defective prions comes in contact with a normal prion it converts it into a infectious prion protein. This is all via simple contact.

15

What do prions eventually cause the cell to do?

Burst

16

What would you see in a deceased persons brain who was infected with prions and why?

Holes due to the prions bursting

17

Can prions be destroyed with heat or chemicals?

No

18

Are viruses cellular or non-cellular

Non-cellualr

19

What do viruses consist of?

A core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat also known as a capsid

20

What organisms do viruses infect?

All

21

Do viruses need to reproduce?

Yes

22

What shape are most viruses?

Shperical

23

Where can viruses only reproduce?

Inside a host cell

24

How do viruses invade host cells>

-Piercing cells surface
-Attaching to receptor sites and inject their genetic components
-A cell may take a virus in via endocytosis
-Injected genetic material will provide instructions to create new viral proteins
-injected material may lie hidden in the host cell before becoming active

25

What are bacteriophages?

A specific group of virsues that infect bacteria.
-they land and inject there DNA

26

What are some examples of viruses

-DNA-smallpox, herpes, warts
-RNA-hepatitis, influenza, aids

27

What does HIV attach to and attack

Helper T cells and macrophages

28

What are viroids made up of?

Short pieces of naked RNA

29

Define Bacteria

Uni-cellular organisms that are all eurkaryotic

30

What do bacteria not have?

No membrane bound organelles or a nucleus

31

What do Bacteria have structurally

-Cell wall
-Single stranded chromosome
-Ribosomes
-Flagella

32

How do bacteria replicate?

Binary Fission

33

What are the three basic shapes of bacteria?

-Coccus (round)
-Bacillus (rod)
-Spirochaete (sprial)

34

What happens in binary fission?

Bacteria replicate their own DNA then split in 2 One cell divides every 20 minutes

35

What happens when bacteria is exposed to extreme conditions such as heat and dryness?

Forms a protective coating also known as a spore

36

Are all bacteria pathogens?

No some are used in the gut and others for digestion

37

How is bacteria transferred

Via mucus, food, air, contact and vectors

38

Example of bacterial disease

-Food poising
-Sore throat

39

Are bacteria cellular?

Yes

40

Are protozoa cellular?

YEs

41

What are protozoa

They are uni-cellular eurkaryotic organisms

42

How do protozoa reproduce?

Asexually or sexually

43

What are the three classes of protozoa? and give an example for each

-Flagellates-diarrhoea
-Sporozoans-malaria
-Amoebas

44

Are fungi unicellular or multicellular?

They can be both

45

What are the three classifications of fungi in humans

-moulds
-true-yeasts
-fungi -like yeasts

46

What are worms

Multi cellular and eukaryotic

47

How do worms replicate

Reproduce

48

What are arthropods?

Insects usually a vector carrying a disease

49

What are oomycetes

Pathogens which cause diseases in plants

50

Define a non-infectious disease

Diseases that cannot be transmitted from one individual to another

51

Define an infectious disease

Disease cause by another organism, can be transmitted from one organism to another

52

Define infection

The invasion and growth of harmful cellular/non-cellular agent within the body of a host

53

Define carrier

Host to a pathogen, does not expereice signs or symptoms but can trasmit diseas to others

54

Define infectious disease

Caused by the invasion and growth of a pathogen within an organism

55

Define host

the organism in or upon which a parasite feeds

56

Define prions

Abnormal and infectious pieces of proteins

57

Can all humans make prion proteins

yes all humans contain dna that can be made into prions

58

What happens when the genetic material has been injected into the cell from a viirus

Viral DNA reprograms the host cell chromosome to make many new viral copies

59

Define epedemic

rapid spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time

60

Define Pandemic

INfectious diease that has spead through human populations across a large region

61

What are virioids

Short pieces of naked RNA

62

What can bacteria produce?

toxins which can be toxic to humans

63

Define an antibiotic

Substance that destroys bacteria and other microorganisms