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Flashcards in Hominin Evolution Deck (42)
1

What are some ways of distinguishing mammals

mammary glands, hair, three middle ear bonees, teeth

2

What are some features of a primate

Large brain for body size
five fingers with opposable thumb
flat nails
forward facing eyes

3

What are the living primate groups

Posimians
New world monkeys
old world monkeys
apes

4

Hominoids

Include all apes, both the great apes and the lesser apes

5

Hominids

Include all great apes

6

Hominins

Coollective term for all human species

7

Which is the most advanced and least advanced group of today?

Least-Prosimians
Most-hominins humans

8

What is the kinggdoms for humans

animalia

9

Class for humans

Mammalia

10

Order for humans

Primates

11

Genus for humans

Homo

12

Species for humans

H.sapiens

13

Unique features that humans have

-Communciate complex behavioural patterns
-S-shaped spine for movement and balance
-Spine is attached at the base of the skull
-Arched feet for striding
-Less pronounced neck muscles
-Ability to walk in a straight line

14

How have skulls evolved

-Larger more rounder shape
-more veritcal forehead
-less protruding jaw
-chin
-reduced size in teeth

15

Why are primate fossils so rare

They usually live in climates in which are not ideal for fossilaisation as they live in tropical climates
-Which decay of dead organisms is common

16

What are the only living members of the primate group

Humans

17

Features of hominin evolution

bipedal consequences
-fully bipedal
-reduced forehead
-reduced cainines
-less body hair

18

three geological periods of time

archean
proterozoic
phanerozoic

19

what is the phanerozoic eon divded into

palaeozoic
mesozioc
cenozoic

20

Why are humans in the phylum group?

because they have a backbone

21

What characteristics do mammals have?

mammary glands
teeth : incisors, canines, molars
hair or fur on surface
three bones in the ear

22

what is the order humans belong to

primates

23

what are the characteristics of primates

five digits and opposable thumb
nails instead of claws
eyes facing forward
large head
long time pregnant

24

how is known that we are derived from chimps

examining amino acid sequences for particular proteins
6million years ago

25

Where are the oldest hominin fossils?

Africa

26

What are the different types of homin fossils

Ardipithecus
Australopithecus
Paranthropus
homo (only homo genus found outside of Africa )

27

What are the main features on fossil evidence that shows that the animal walked upright

Hole for spinal cord is directly at the bottom
-shinbone angle to femur
-pelvis is shorter and wider
-fossilised footprints

28

Evolution to Homo sapiens

Enlargement of cranial and brain size
Flattening of the face less prominence of the jaw
Smaller teeth
Became bipedal

29

What outcome is there that hominins became bipedal

Spent more time on the ground hence exposed to different selective pressures than there

30

How to differentiate between Australopithecus and Paranthropus

a- smaller brain size
no Sagittal crest in forehead
large molars
p-slightly larger brain size
sigittal crest in forehead
HUGE molars

31

why is a reason humans are descendants from Aus

jaw like structure

32

What do fossils show about the way Australopithecus and Paranthropus lived?

-Males were bigger than females; could be due to polyamorous coupling
-Size of the muscles for chewing were very large in Paranthropus this is due to haves a hard fibrous plant matter diet, the Australopithecus msucles were smaller indicating less fibrours diet
-Ribcage and pelvic wideness oh Australopithecus are rather wide due to needing a large gastrointestinal tract.

33

Distinguishing features of homo as a genus are

-Significantly higher cranial capacity
-Smaller teeth
-Shortening of the face

34

Which were the first species to use primitive stone tools

homo habilis and homorudolfenis

35

Explain homo erectus

Oldest found outside of Africa
Migrated outside of Africa
crafted more elabroate stone tools
hunted systematically
controlled the use of fire

36

H.neanderthalenis

Found worldwide
-crafed fine stone tools
-made clothing

37

Homo sapiens

Evolved 130,000 years ago in Africa
-made a wide variety of stone tools
-buried their dead

38

Why can it be believed that homo sapiens orignated from Afirca

-transitional ancestral fossils
-mtDNA in modern African population show the greatest variablity

39

Define Cultral Evolution

The persistent change across a lengthy timespan within a human species

40

How is cultural evolution transmitted

Comminicatioin
Written and Spoken language
Via upbringing in home environment

41

Define technological evolution

Refers to the persistent change in the use of technology

42

How does technological evolution aid cultural

Enhance the rate of globalisation and the transmission of messages worldwide.