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Flashcards in Mutations Deck (25)
1

What is a mutation?

A permenant change in the genetic material

2

Where can mutations affect

A single point in a gene or larger sections of DNA

3

What sort of events are mutations?

Spontaneous/random

4

Mutant

Individual who inherits the trait

5

Mutagen

Something that induces a mutaiton

6

What are point mutations?

Minor changes to DNA and are often called single gene mutations

7

What are the three types of point mutations?

Substiution
Addition
Deletion

8

What point mutations are the msot devastating?

Addition
Deletion

9

What can substitution mutations sometimes lead to?

can result in a codon that still codes for the same amino acid

10

Misense Mutation

A point mutation where the chance in a single nucleotide causes the substitution of a different amino acid

11

Nonsense mutation

Point mutation which results in a premature stop codonin transcribed mRNA

12

Which are the most common form of mutations?

Substitutions

13

what do substitution mutations involve?

Replacement of one base by another, one codon may be altered so that now it codes for one different amino acid in the protein sequence.

14

What is the most detremential substituion mutation

1st or 2nd base of a condon is altered

15

What do insertion mutations cause?

A frame shift, affecting many codons

16

What occurs in deletion and what does it cause?

Nucleotide is deleted from the base sequence and a frame shift is caused.

17

What can chromosome mutations involve?

1. Structural altercations of chromosomes
2. Changes in number of whole chromosomes within a nucleus

18

What is translocations

One choromosome attaches onto the end of another

19

What can translocations result in

May not seperate in meiosis

20

What are inversions

Occur when a single chromosome undergoes breakage and a segment of the chromosome is reversed end to end.

21

What are duplication mutations

A section of chromosome repeats

22

non-disjunction mutation

meiosos chromosomes do not seperate

23

result of non-disjunction

gametes produced will have too many or too few chromosomes.

24

What is aneuploidy

When an organism possesses an abnoormal number of chromomes

25

polyploidy

diploid gametes