Biopsychology Flashcards Preview

AQA A-Level Psychology Year 2 > Biopsychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biopsychology Deck (99)
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1

What are the divisions of the nervous system

CNS
PNS- Somatic Nervous System
- Autonomic nervous system- sympathetic, parasympathetic

2

What makes up the cns?

the brain and the spinal cord

The brain has two hemispheres and cerebral cortex

The spinal cord is responsible for reflex actions

3

What does the peripheral ns do?

transmits messages to and from the CNS

4

What is the role of the somatic NS

controls muscle movement

received info from sensory receptors

5

what is the role of the autonomous NS?

governs vital functions in the body, such as breathing, heart rate, digestion

6

Name 7 glands in the endocrine system

Hypothalamus
Pituitary
Thyroid
Adrenals
Pancreas
Ovaries
Testes

7

What is the role of the pituitary gland?

It is located in the brain
Controls the release of hormones from all other endocrine glands in the body

8

What hormone does the thyroid gland produce?

Thyroxine
This affects the cells in the heart, and increase metabolic rates, affecting growth rates

9

Name a hormone the adrenal gland produces

Adrenaline
Part of the bodies immediate stress response system
strong effect on the cells of the cardiovascular system
part of the fight or flight response

10

Describe the fight or flight response

stressor - hypothalamus triggers activity in the sympathetic branch - adrenaline realised from adrenal medulla- physiological changes - parasympathetic returns body to resting state

11

describe a sensory neuron

carries messages from pns to cns
long dendrites
short axons

12

describe a relay neuron

connects sensory neurons to motor neurons

short dendrites
short axons

13

describe a motor neuron

connects cns to muscles and glands

short dendrites
long axons

14

how big can neurons be?

a mm to a metre long

15

what makes up a neuron?

soma (cell body)- has a nucleus
dendrites carry impulses towards cell body
axons carry impulses away
myelin sheath protects axon and speeds up impulse
nodes of ranvier - gaps in the myelin sheath, , speeds up impulse
terminal buttons- communicate with next neuron in the chain across a synapse

16

what is action potential

when a neuron is activated by a stimulus, the inside of the cell becomes positively charged for a split second causing an action potential

17

What is a synapse

the gap between two neurones

18

how are signals between neuroma transmitter compared with inside neurons

chemically by synaptic transmission, electrically within the neuron

19

what happens when an electrical impulse reaches the end of the neuron (presymaptic terminal)

triggers the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles which leave the presynaptic nerve terminal and is taken up by the post synaptic receptor sites

20

give an example of a neurotransmitter

serotonin
acetylcholine- found where a motor neuron meets a muscle, on its realise , muscles contract

21

what is meant by excitatory and inhibitory

excitation- when a neurotransmitter increases the positive charge of the post synaptic neuron

inhibition- when a neurotransmitter makes the charge more negative

22

What is localisation of function in the brain?

the theory that different areas of the brain are responsible for different behaviours

23

what is the outer layer is the hemispheres called?

cerebral cortex

24

what is the motor area

voluntary movement in opposite sides of the body

back of frontal lobe

25

what is the somatosensory area

sensory info from skin is represented

separated from motor area by the central sulcus

front of parietal lobe

26

what is the visual area?

each eye sends info from eight visual field to left visual cortex and vice versa,

damage to left hemisphere can produce blindness in parts of the right visual field in both eyes

occipital lobe

27

where are the language areas of the brain restricted to?

the left side

28

what is broca’s area

left frontal lobe responsible for speech production

damage caused Broca’s aphasia, such as patient Tan

29

What is Wernicke’s area?

Left temporal lobe

Responsible for language comprehension

30

Evaluation of localisation if function in the brain

Brain scan evidence

What did Petersen et al (1988) find?

Used brain scans

showed how Wernickes area was active during listening tasks

Broca’s area active during a reading task