Flashcards in Biopsychology Deck (99)
What are the divisions of the nervous system
PNS- Somatic Nervous System
- Autonomic nervous system- sympathetic, parasympathetic
What makes up the cns?
the brain and the spinal cord
The brain has two hemispheres and cerebral cortex
The spinal cord is responsible for reflex actions
What does the peripheral ns do?
transmits messages to and from the CNS
What is the role of the somatic NS
controls muscle movement
received info from sensory receptors
what is the role of the autonomous NS?
governs vital functions in the body, such as breathing, heart rate, digestion
Name 7 glands in the endocrine system
What is the role of the pituitary gland?
It is located in the brain
Controls the release of hormones from all other endocrine glands in the body
What hormone does the thyroid gland produce?
This affects the cells in the heart, and increase metabolic rates, affecting growth rates
Name a hormone the adrenal gland produces
Part of the bodies immediate stress response system
strong effect on the cells of the cardiovascular system
part of the fight or flight response
Describe the fight or flight response
stressor - hypothalamus triggers activity in the sympathetic branch - adrenaline realised from adrenal medulla- physiological changes - parasympathetic returns body to resting state
describe a sensory neuron
carries messages from pns to cns
describe a relay neuron
connects sensory neurons to motor neurons
describe a motor neuron
connects cns to muscles and glands
how big can neurons be?
a mm to a metre long
what makes up a neuron?
soma (cell body)- has a nucleus
dendrites carry impulses towards cell body
axons carry impulses away
myelin sheath protects axon and speeds up impulse
nodes of ranvier - gaps in the myelin sheath, , speeds up impulse
terminal buttons- communicate with next neuron in the chain across a synapse
what is action potential
when a neuron is activated by a stimulus, the inside of the cell becomes positively charged for a split second causing an action potential
What is a synapse
the gap between two neurones
how are signals between neuroma transmitter compared with inside neurons
chemically by synaptic transmission, electrically within the neuron
what happens when an electrical impulse reaches the end of the neuron (presymaptic terminal)
triggers the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles which leave the presynaptic nerve terminal and is taken up by the post synaptic receptor sites
give an example of a neurotransmitter
acetylcholine- found where a motor neuron meets a muscle, on its realise , muscles contract
what is meant by excitatory and inhibitory
excitation- when a neurotransmitter increases the positive charge of the post synaptic neuron
inhibition- when a neurotransmitter makes the charge more negative
What is localisation of function in the brain?
the theory that different areas of the brain are responsible for different behaviours
what is the outer layer is the hemispheres called?
what is the motor area
voluntary movement in opposite sides of the body
back of frontal lobe
what is the somatosensory area
sensory info from skin is represented
separated from motor area by the central sulcus
front of parietal lobe
what is the visual area?
each eye sends info from eight visual field to left visual cortex and vice versa,
damage to left hemisphere can produce blindness in parts of the right visual field in both eyes
where are the language areas of the brain restricted to?
the left side
what is broca’s area
left frontal lobe responsible for speech production
damage caused Broca’s aphasia, such as patient Tan
What is Wernicke’s area?
Left temporal lobe
Responsible for language comprehension