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AQA A-Level Psychology Year 2 > Approaches > Flashcards

Flashcards in Approaches Deck (58)
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1

Who was Wundt?

first ever lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879

introspection

structuralism

standardised instructions

2

What are the assumptions of the behaviourist approach?

observed and measured

rejected introspection

lab experiments

3

BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH

What did Pavlov research?

classical conditioning

dogs conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell

4

BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH

What did Skinner research?

operant conditioning

skinner box (rats positively and negatively reinforced)

punishment

5

BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH

scientific credibility

objective

replication

greater credibility and status to psychology as a science

6

BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH

Real life application

token economy systems

classical conditioning used in the treatment of phobias

7

BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH

reductionist

sees humans as passive

8

BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH

deterministic

ignores any possible influence that free will may have an effect on behaviour

9

BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH

Ethical issues

harm caused to the animals used in the studies

10

What are the assumptions of SLT

indirect learning

classical and operant conditioning

observation and imitation

behaviour learnt from others

11

SLT

What is vicarious reinforcement

imitation only occurs if the behaviour is seen to be rewarded rather than punished

12

SLT

What are the mediational processes

attention

retention

motor reproduction

motivation

13

SLT

What is identification?

more likely to imitate behaviour of whom they identify- role models
(modelling)

14

SLT

What did Bandura study?

young children watched adult behave aggressively towards bobo doll

children then behaved more aggressively to bobo doll when later observed

they then saw an adult being praised, condition 2, saw adult being punished, condition 3 saw no consequence

1st- most aggressive, 2nd least aggressive, 3rd second aggressive

15

SLT

Importance of cognitive factors

provides a more comprehensive explanation of human learning

16

SLT

Explains cultural differences

explains gender roles

explains cultural norms and how they are transmitted

17

SLT

Deterministic

less deterministic than behavioural approach

reciprocal determinism

some free will

18

SLT

Underestimates biological factors

hormonal factors may effect aggression

19

SLT

Over reliance on lab studies

Bandura in lab setting

causes demand characteristics

20

What are the assumptions of the cognitive approach?

Argues that internal mental processes can, and should, be studied scientifically.

Psychologists study indirectly by making inferences.

21

Cognitive

What are internal mental processes

private operations of the mind such as perception and attention.

22

Cognitive

What are schema

A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing.

Developed from experience.

23

Cognitive

What are the roles of theoretical and computer models?

To help understand internal mental processes.

Information processing approach which suggests that information flows through the cognitive system in a series of stages, such as input, storage and retrieval, like the multi-store model of memory.

Development of AI.

24

Cognitive

What is the role of schema?

Enable us to process lots of information quickly, like a mental short-cut that prevents us from being overhwhlemed by envrionmental stimuli.

However, may distort our interpretations of sensory information, leading to perceptual errors.

25

Cognitive

What is the emergence of cognitive neuroscience?

the scientific study of the influence of brain structures on mental processes.

fMRI, PET scans- scientists systematically observe and describe the neurological basis of mental processes.

26

Cognitive Evaluation

Scientific and objective methods

Highly controlled methods of study

Lab experiments to produce reliable, objective data.

Credible scientific basis.

27

Cognitive Evaluation

Machine reductionism

Ignores the influence of human emotion and motivation on the cognitive system and how this may affect our ability to process information.

E.G. research on eyewitness testimonies demonstarted that anxiety may have an influence on recall.

28

Cognitive Evaluation

Application to everyday life

Experiments often use artificial stimuli, lacking external validity.

Only able to infer, so may be too abstract and theoretical in nature.

29

Cognitive Evaluation

Real-life application

Made an important contribution in AI.

Development of thinking machines (robots).

30

Cognitive Evaluation

Less deterministic

founded on soft determinism.

recgonises that our cognitive system can only operate within the limits of what we know but that we are free to think before responding to a stimulus.