Flashcards in Approaches Deck (58)
Who was Wundt?
first ever lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879
What are the assumptions of the behaviourist approach?
observed and measured
What did Pavlov research?
dogs conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell
What did Skinner research?
skinner box (rats positively and negatively reinforced)
greater credibility and status to psychology as a science
Real life application
token economy systems
classical conditioning used in the treatment of phobias
sees humans as passive
ignores any possible influence that free will may have an effect on behaviour
harm caused to the animals used in the studies
What are the assumptions of SLT
classical and operant conditioning
observation and imitation
behaviour learnt from others
What is vicarious reinforcement
imitation only occurs if the behaviour is seen to be rewarded rather than punished
What are the mediational processes
What is identification?
more likely to imitate behaviour of whom they identify- role models
What did Bandura study?
young children watched adult behave aggressively towards bobo doll
children then behaved more aggressively to bobo doll when later observed
they then saw an adult being praised, condition 2, saw adult being punished, condition 3 saw no consequence
1st- most aggressive, 2nd least aggressive, 3rd second aggressive
Importance of cognitive factors
provides a more comprehensive explanation of human learning
Explains cultural differences
explains gender roles
explains cultural norms and how they are transmitted
less deterministic than behavioural approach
some free will
Underestimates biological factors
hormonal factors may effect aggression
Over reliance on lab studies
Bandura in lab setting
causes demand characteristics
What are the assumptions of the cognitive approach?
Argues that internal mental processes can, and should, be studied scientifically.
Psychologists study indirectly by making inferences.
What are internal mental processes
private operations of the mind such as perception and attention.
What are schema
A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing.
Developed from experience.
What are the roles of theoretical and computer models?
To help understand internal mental processes.
Information processing approach which suggests that information flows through the cognitive system in a series of stages, such as input, storage and retrieval, like the multi-store model of memory.
Development of AI.
What is the role of schema?
Enable us to process lots of information quickly, like a mental short-cut that prevents us from being overhwhlemed by envrionmental stimuli.
However, may distort our interpretations of sensory information, leading to perceptual errors.
What is the emergence of cognitive neuroscience?
the scientific study of the influence of brain structures on mental processes.
fMRI, PET scans- scientists systematically observe and describe the neurological basis of mental processes.
Scientific and objective methods
Highly controlled methods of study
Lab experiments to produce reliable, objective data.
Credible scientific basis.
Ignores the influence of human emotion and motivation on the cognitive system and how this may affect our ability to process information.
E.G. research on eyewitness testimonies demonstarted that anxiety may have an influence on recall.
Application to everyday life
Experiments often use artificial stimuli, lacking external validity.
Only able to infer, so may be too abstract and theoretical in nature.
Made an important contribution in AI.
Development of thinking machines (robots).