# Year 2 research methods Flashcards

What must a psychology report include?

Title, abstract, introduction, procedure, results, discussion, references and appendices

What is the title?

Must be concise, clear, gives the reader an idea of the investigations concerns

what is the abstract?

a brief summary of the investigation , written last, appears at the front

what must be included in the abstract?

a one sentence summary description of participants and sampling technique description of procedure description of results conclusion

what is the introduction?

a literature review of the general area of investigation

relevant theories, concepts and studies

logical progression - become more specific until aim and hypnosis are presented

What is the method?

Four sub-sections design and overview participants and investigators apparatus procedure

What is included in the design and overview?

research method used and why research design use and justified state iv and dv any other variables controlled how you delay with ethical issues

what is included in participants and investigators

who and how were they selected sampling procedure the investigator number of participants how they were allocated into groups

what is included in the apparatus and materials

a list of everything used

what is included in the procedure?

exactly what you did from start to finish

any pilot studies

refer to appendices for standardised instructions, debrief, copies of materials

a verbatim of everything said to participants

what is included in the results?

summarise key findings

summary table

fully labelled graph

do not include raw data

what is included in inferential statistics ?

were the results statistically significant?

is it possible to reject null hypothesis?

statistical test must be fully justified

what is included in the discussion ?

state findings in psychological terms, relating to aims and hypothesis

state whether findings support those of your background study

compare findings to existing research

what is included in the discussion of limitations and modifications ?

critical look at research strengths of study weaknesses of research look at confounding variables that could have affected the results suggest modifications

what is included in the discussion: implications and suggestions for further research?

suggest ideas for further research

real world applications and implications

What is included in references ?

background study

any internet resources

in alphabetical order

what is included in the appendices ?

raw data calculations stimulus materials standardised instructions debrief

what are descriptive statistics?

can not tell us whether the results are significant or not

measures of central tendency

measures of dispersion

graphs and tables

what are inferential statistics ?

refers to use of statistical tests which tell us whether the relationship found is significantly signficant or not

helps decide which hypothesis to accept and which to reject

what is probability ?

how likely the results are due to chance factors

what is the level of probability used by psychologists?

5%

0.05

what is a null hypothesis ?

any difference between the two conditions is caused by chance

what is a type one error?

occurs when a null hypnosis is rejected when it is in fact true

overly optimistic

more likely to occur when a less stringent level of significance is applied

what is a type two error?

occurs when a null hypothesis is retained when it is in fact false

pessimistic

more likely to occur when a more stringent level of significance is applied

When do you used a Chi squared test?

when it is a test of difference

unrelated data

nominal data

when do you use a sign test?

test of difference

related data

nominal data

when do you use a chi squared test (2)

test of correlation/ relationship

nominal

when do you use Mann-Whitney test?

test of difference

unrelated data

ordinal

When do you use a Wilcoxon test?

test of difference

related data

ordinal