What is a lab experiment

high controlled

iv manipulated

dv recorded

What are the strengths of a lab experiment

extraneous variables controlled , internal validity

easily replicated

weaknesses of lab experiment

reduced external validity

lack of mundane realism

What is a field experiment

manipulates iv in natural setting

Strengths of field experiment

higher external validity

less demand characteristics

weaknesses of field study

harder to control extraneous variables

ethical issues of informed consent

what is a natural experiment

naturally occurring iv

strength of natural experiment

high external validity

weaknesses of natural experiment

even less control over extraneous variables

p’s cannot be randomly allocated

what is a quasi experiment

iv based on an existing difference between people

strengths of quasi experiments

controlled

scientific credibility

weaknesses of quasi experiments

confounding variables as participants not randomly allocated

what is a naturalistic observation?

natural, non manipulated environment

high external validity

low control

What is a controlled observation

manipulated

more control

lower external validity

What is a covert observation?

participants are not aware they are being watched

truthful behaviour

ethical issues

what is an overt observation

participants do know and gives consent

ethically sound

participants may change behaviour

what is participants observation?

researcher takes part

greater insight

lose objectivity

what is non participant observation?

researcher doesn’t participate

remain objective

lack of extra insight

Strengths of questionnaires

potential large sample

easy to analyse responses

open or closed questions

weaknesses of questionnaires

response bias

social desirability bias

acquiescence bias

strengths of structures interviews

easily replicated

easy to analyse

weakness of structures interviews

inflexible

strengths of unstructured interviews

more depth

weakness of unstructured interview

difficult to repeat

weaknesses with interviews

participants may not be honest

What is a correlation?

measures relationship between two variables and the strength of that relationship

can be positive or negative

what is an aim?

driven by a theory to explain a given observation

what is a hypothesis?

makes predictions of an investigations outcome that makes reference to iv and dv

what is a null hypothesis

predicts no relationship will be found

What is random sampling

entire target population has an equal chance of being selected

strengths and weaknesses of random sampling

eliminates sampling bias

difficult to achieve

what is stratified sampling?

identifies different types of people in the target population and works out the proportions in order to be representative

strengths and weaknesses of stratified sampling

representative

time consuming

What is opportunity sampling

people available at the time

strengths and weaknesses of opportunity sampling

quick

could be biased

What is systematic sampling

every nth participant

strengths and weaknesses of systematic sampling

representative

difficult to achieve

strengths and weaknesses of volunteer sampling

volunteer bias

easy to achieve

what is primary data?

first hand from participants, collected specifically for that price of research

What is a pilot study?

small scale run of investigation

allows issues to be known

to modify design

determine number of participants needed

Strengths of repeated measures

subject variables reduced

better statistical tests

fewer subjects

weaknesses of repeated measures

order effects

demand characteristics

strengths of independent measures

order effects reduced

demand characteristics reduced

weaknesses of independent measures

worse statistical tests

more subjects

strengths of matched pairs

better statistical tests

order effects reduced

demand characteristics reduced

weaknesses of matched pairs

subject variables

time consuming

what are examples of observational design

event sampling

behavioural categories

time sampling

What is peer review

assessment of scientific work by others in the same field as you

objective

what are the measures of central tendency

mean

median

mode

what are the measures of dispersion

range

standard deviation

what is the mean

calculated by adding up all scores and dividing by number of scores

advantages

mean

takes all scores into amount so all data is represented

disadvantages

mean

when there is extreme scores , anomalies will distort the mean abs make it unrepresentative

what is the median

the middle value when placed in numerical order

advantages

median

unaffected by extreme scores

disadvantages

median

less sensitive than the mean as doesn’t take into account all of the scores

what is the mode

the value that occurs most frequently

advantage

mode

unaffected by anomalies

disadvantage

mode

unstable if only a few scores representing each value

what is the range

difference between highest and lowest score

advantage

range

easy and quick to calculate

disadvantage

range

vulnerable to rogue scores

what is standard deviation?

average amount all scores deviate from the mean

advantage

standard deviation

gives a more accurate picture than range

takes into account all scores and is sensitive

disadvantage

standard deviation

vulnerable to rogue scores