Issues and debates Flashcards Preview

AQA A-Level Psychology Year 2 > Issues and debates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Issues and debates Deck (57)
Loading flashcards...

What is the first issue and debate

Gender and culture


What is universality?

to develop theories that apply to all peopple


what is alpha bias?

research that exaggerates differences between men and women


what is beta bias?

researh that ignores differences between men and women.


what is androcentrism?

centred on men


what is ethnocentrism?

judging others by the standards of your own culture.


what is cutural relativism?

behaviour cannot be properly judged unless it is viewed in the context of the culture in which it orignates.


Evaluation of gender bias

Misleading assumptions

As science leads to real world applications, it may provide scientific justification for denying women opportunites.


Evalution of gender bias

Sexism in research process

male researchers are more likely to have their work published than females.


Evaluation of gender bias

Feminist commentator views

women should be studied in meaningful, real life contexts.
diversity within groups of women should also be examined.
Collaborative research methods that collect qualitative data.


Evaluation of culture bias


Western cultures place emphasis on independence, whereas collective cultures emphasise interconnectedness.

Research has suggested that culture bias is less of an issue than it once was, 14/15 studies that compared the USA and Japan found no evidence of traditional distinction.


Evaluation of culture bias

Cultrual relativism vs universality

it should not be assumed that all psychology is culturally relative and that there is no such thing as universal behaviour.

basic facial expressions are the same all around the world.


Evalution of culture bias

Unfamiliarity with research tradition

In western culture, aims and objectives of scientific enquiry is assumed, however, may not extend to cultures without a history of research.


What is the second issue and debate?

Free will and determinism


What is determinism?

behaviour is controlled by either internal or external forces acting upon the individual.


what is hard determinism?

all human behaviour has a cause and in principle it should be possible to identify all these cuases.


What is soft determinism?

there is some room for manoeuvre, in that peole have some conscious control over the way they behave.


What is biological determinism?

behaviour is determined by biological factors outside of out control.


What is environmental determinism?

Behaviour is determined by environmental factors outside of our control.


What is psychic determinism?

Behaviour is determined by unconscious conflicts outside of our control.


For determinism

consistent with the aims of science.

notion that human behaviour follows laws places psychology on an equal footing to other sciences.

the prediction and control of behaviour has led to the development of therapies and treatments.


Against determinism

not consistent with the way our legal system operates- offenders held morally acountable.



For free will

face valisity as everyday expereicne gives the impression we are constantly exercising free will.

research suggests peopple with an internal locus of control tend to be more mentally healthy.

the fact we think we have free will may have a positive impact on mind and behaviour.


Against free will

our most basic experiences of free will are decided by our brain before we are aware of them.


What is the third issue and debate?

nature vs nurture


what is nature

when behaviour is seen to be a product of innate genetic factors


what is nurture

when behaviour is seen to be a product of environmental factors


what is the contribution of nature and nurture called?

the relative importance of heredity and environment in determining behaviour


what is the interactionist approach ?

behaviour is a product of genetic and environmental influences working together


what is the diathesis- stress model?

when behaviour is a product of genetic and environmental influences working together