Flashcards in BIOPSYCHOLOGY (A-Level) part one Deck (26)
What is localisation of function?
Specific functions have specific locations in the brain.
What is the motor cortex?
A region of the brain responsible for the generation of voluntary motor movement.
Where is the motor cortex located?
In the frontal lobe.
How does the motor cortex control muscle movement?
One side of the brain controls the muscles on the opposite side of he body.
What is the somatosensory cortex
A region of the brain that processes input from sensory receptors in the body that are sensitive to touch.
Whee is the somatosensory cortex located?
In the parietal lobe.
What does somatosensory cortex do with the sensory information given?
Produces pressure, pain and temperature.
What does the motor cortex and the somatosensory cortex have in common?
The side of the brain controlling a certain function happens on the opposite side of the body.
What is Broca’s area?
An area in the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere related to speech production.
What did Fedoronko discover about Broca’s region?
One part involved language and the other involved responding to many demanding cognitive tasks (mathematical skills)
What is Wernickes area?
An area in the temporal lib is it h brain important for comprehension of language.
What is the evaluation of localisation of function?
Harasfy found that women have proportionally bigger Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area.
What is hemispheric lateralisation?
Some mental processes in the brain are mainly specialised to either the right or the left hemisphere.
What does the left hemisphere specialise in?
Language and speech.
What does the right hemisphere specialise in?
Visual-spatial tasks and facial recognition.
If language is located in the left hemisphere how is it possible to talk about hints in the right hemisphere ?(facial recognition)
The information is received from one hemisphere to the other through connecting bundle of nerve fibres such as the corpus callosum.
What was Sperry and Gazzaniga’s research?
A split brain patient would focus on a dot and would be asked to make responses with either their left hand (controlled by the right hemisphere) or their right hand (controlled by left hemisphere).
What were the findings from split-brain research?
The connectivity between the different regions is as important as the operation of the different parts.
What is the evaluation of lateralisation and split-brain research?
Lateralisation increases for children and adolescents and decreases after 25.
What is plasticity?
The brains ability to change and adapt as a result of experience.
How does the brain change and adapt?
Developing new neural connections and pining away weak ones.
Which unusual thing causing plasticity in the brain?
Video games - The researchers concluded that video game training has resulted in new synaptic connections is brain areas involved in spatial navigation, strategic planning etc. skills and to play the game successfully.
What are the two mechanisms for recovery?
Neuronal unmasking and Stem cells.
What is neuronal unmasking?
When synaptic connections that exist but are blocked (dormant synapses). Increasing the rate of input to these synapses would ‘unmask’ these dormant synapses, curing it.
How does stem cell help functional recovery?
Stem cells implanted into the brain would directly replace dead or dying cells.
Transported stem cells secrete growth factors that rescue injured cells.