PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Flashcards Preview

A-LEVEL PSYCHOLOGY PERSONALISED FLASHCARDS > PSYCHOPATHOLOGY > Flashcards

Flashcards in PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Deck (62)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is Statistical infrequency?

Behaviours that are extremely rare

2

Limitations of statistical infrequency?

Some behaviour is desirable, ie high IQ.

Statistical frequency is relative to the reference population (cultural relativism)

3

Strengths of statistical infrequency?

A useful part of clinical assessment, the severity of symptoms are compared to statistical norms.

4

Deviation from social norms?

Behaviour that is different from the accepted standards of behaviour in a community or society.

5

Strengths of deviation from social norms?

Includes the issue of the desirability of a behaviour ,eg. high IQ.

6

Limitations of deviation from social norms?

Social norms vary tremendously from one generation to another and from one community to another.

7

Failure to function adequately?

Occurs when someone is unable to cope with ordinary demands of everyday life.

8

Strengths of failure to function adequately?

Behaviour is observable such as not being able to get up in the morning.

9

Limitations of failure to function adequately?

Abnormality does not always stop the person from functioning.

10

Deviation from ideal mental health?

Occurs when someone does not meet a criteria for good ideal mental health.

11

Strengths of deviation from ideal mental health?

Positive approach, a general part of the humanistic approach.

12

Limitations of deviation from social norms?

Unrealistic criteria, may not be useable because it is too ideal

13

What is OCD?

An anxiety disorder where anxiety arises from obsessions (persistent thoughts) and compulsions (repeated behaviours). The person believes the compulsions will reduce anxiety.

14

What are the emotional characteristics of OCD?

Anxiety, embarrassment and shame.

15

What are the behavioural characteristics of OCD?

- Repetitive and unconcealed compulsive behaviours are performed to reduce anxiety.

- Behaviours are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralise or prevent.

16

What are the cognitive characteristics of OCD?

- Thoughts that are perceived as inappropriate or forbidden (feels embarrassed to share).

- Person recognises that the obsessions and compulsions are obsessive.

17

What is depression?

A mood disorder where an individual feels sad/lacks interest in their usual activities. Experiences irrational negative thoughts and difficulty with concentration, sleep and eating.

18

What are the emotional characteristics of depression?

Sadness, loss of interests, feels worthless, feels hopeless, low self esteem and anger.

19

What are the behavioural characteristics of depression?

agitated, restless, appetite, insomnia.

20

What are the cognitive characteristics of depression?

Negative view of the world.

21

What is a phobia?

A group of mental disorders characterised by high levels of anxiety in response to a particular stimulus. The anxiety interferes with normal living.

22

What are the emotional characteristics of a phobia?

Fear, anxiety and panic.

23

What are the behavioural characteristics of a phobia?

Avoidance, freezing and fainting.

24

What are the cognitive characteristics of a phobia?

Recognises fear is excessive.

25

What is the behavioural approach to explaining phobias?

The two-process model (classical and operant conditioning and social learning model.

26

How does classical conditioning explain phobias?

Phobia acquired through association, between NS and UCS, NS becomes CS.

27

Which research supports classical conditioning to explain phobias?

Little Albert (Watson) developed a fear of a white rat later generalising to furry object through pairing the NS with the UCS.

28

How does operant conditioning explain phobias?

The phobia is reinforced through the rewarding outcome. An example is negative reinforcement is escaping from an unpleasant situation.

29

How does social learning explain phobias?

This is acquired through modelling the behaviour. An example would be seeing a parent respond to a spider with extreme fear may lead a child to acquire similar behaviour.

30

What is the evaluation for behavioural approach to explaining phobias?

Diathesis-stress model - not everyone who has experienced a traumatic experience will develop a phobia. (diNardo)

Biological preparedness- Phobias more likely with ancient fears passed down through evolution (Seligman)