Flashcards in The Behavourist Approach Deck (18)
What is the behavioural approach made up of?
Classical conditioning (Pavlov) and Operant conditioning (Skinner).
Why did Pavlov discover the behaviourist approach, classical conditioning?
He wanted to focus on on observable events, i.e stimuli and responses.
What is the concept of classical conditioning?
The pairing of the neutral stimulus (NS) wit the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) so that eventually NS becomes conditioned response (CS).
What is the simplified equation of Classical conditioning?
NS+ UCS = UCR
What are the important features of classical conditioning?
Extinction- The conditioned response does not become permanently established as a response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous recovery- If the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are paired again the link between them is made more quickly.
What is operant conditioning?
The belief that organism spontaneously produce different behaviours due to consequences.
What does the fact that an organism repeat a behaviour depend on? (operant conditioning)
The nature of these consequences; desirable or undesirable.
What is reinforcement?
A consequence that increases a likelihood of recurring.
What is positive reinforcement?
When a behaviour adds a consequence that’s satisfying.
What is negative reinforcement?
When a behaviour removes something that was unsatisfactory.
What is punishment?
A consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behaviour recurring.
What is positive punishment?
When a behaviour adds a consequence that is unpleasant.
What is negative punishment?
When a behaviour takes away something that was pleasant.
What’s an important feature of operant conditioning? (reinforcement)
Although a continuous reinforcement schedule is most effective in establishing a particular response, A partial reinforcement is essential in maintaining it and avoiding extinction.
What is a strength of Classical conditioning?
Led to the development of treatment for anxiety associated with phobias.
What is a limitation of Classical conditioning?
Relationships between the CS and UCS tend to be more difficult to establish fro some species than others.
What is a strength of operant conditioning?
Reliance of the experimental methods which uses controlled conditions to discover a casual relationship between variables.