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A-LEVEL PSYCHOLOGY PERSONALISED FLASHCARDS > The Behavourist Approach > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Behavourist Approach Deck (18)
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1

What is the behavioural approach made up of?

Classical conditioning (Pavlov) and Operant conditioning (Skinner).

2

Why did Pavlov discover the behaviourist approach, classical conditioning?

He wanted to focus on on observable events, i.e stimuli and responses.

3

What is the concept of classical conditioning?

The pairing of the neutral stimulus (NS) wit the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) so that eventually NS becomes conditioned response (CS).

4

What is the simplified equation of Classical conditioning?

NS+ UCS = UCR

5

What are the important features of classical conditioning?

Extinction- The conditioned response does not become permanently established as a response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.

Spontaneous recovery- If the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are paired again the link between them is made more quickly.

6

What is operant conditioning?

The belief that organism spontaneously produce different behaviours due to consequences.

7

What does the fact that an organism repeat a behaviour depend on? (operant conditioning)

The nature of these consequences; desirable or undesirable.

8

What is reinforcement?

A consequence that increases a likelihood of recurring.

9

What is positive reinforcement?

When a behaviour adds a consequence that’s satisfying.

10

What is negative reinforcement?

When a behaviour removes something that was unsatisfactory.

11

What is punishment?

A consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behaviour recurring.

12

What is positive punishment?

When a behaviour adds a consequence that is unpleasant.

13

What is negative punishment?

When a behaviour takes away something that was pleasant.

14

What’s an important feature of operant conditioning? (reinforcement)

Although a continuous reinforcement schedule is most effective in establishing a particular response, A partial reinforcement is essential in maintaining it and avoiding extinction.

15

What is a strength of Classical conditioning?

Led to the development of treatment for anxiety associated with phobias.

16

What is a limitation of Classical conditioning?

Relationships between the CS and UCS tend to be more difficult to establish fro some species than others.

17

What is a strength of operant conditioning?

Reliance of the experimental methods which uses controlled conditions to discover a casual relationship between variables.

18

What is a limitation of operant conditioning?

Skinner’s work was on non-human animals.