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Flashcards in Birds Deck (97):
0

What is the class for birds?

Aves

1

What are the two types of bird orders?

Psittaciformes and passeriformes

2

What are three other orders?

Anseroformes
Falconiformes
Galliformes

3

What are anseroformes?

Ducts

4

What are falconiformes?

Falcons and eagles

5

What are galliformes?

Chickens and turkeys

6

Where can an IM injection be given in a bird?

In the keel bone, thigh, and pectoral muscles

7

Where can an SQ be given?

Inguinal and axillary areas

8

Where can blood be collected?

Medial metatarsal vein, jugular vein, basilic vein, toenail clipping or skin procl

9

Which jugular vein is bigger?

Right side

10

What is the coelomic cavity?

Only cavity, contains all organs

11

what is the crop?

Extension of esophagus where food sits for a while

12

What is bird waste made uf?

Small amounts of urea, mostly uric acid crystals

13

What is the cloaca?

Space where reproductive tract, GI tract, and UI tract empty into

14

What are two morphological in psittaciformes?

Hooked maxilla and two digits forward and two back

15

What birds are considered psittacines?

Budgerigar, parakeet, cockatiel, parrot, lovebird, conure, macaw, cockatoo, and lorie

16

What are three characteristics of passeriformes?

3 forward digits, 1 hind toe, no hooked maxilla

17

What birds are included in passiformes

Canary, finch, minaw

18

What are three important components to a birds natural environment?

Open space for movement and exercise. Sensory stimulation. Access to a variety of foods

19

What are four components to a cage?

Must be large enough to provide full body extension. Cage material should be strong, non-toxic and easy to clean, metal bar width and spacing should be appropriate, should have pull out tray (daily)

20

What are four components or bird perches?

Should have variable diameter, made of non-toxic material, one or more necessary, place above cage floor away from food and water bowls

21

How many toys in a birds cage should be in there at one time?

1-2 and rotate

22

How much sleep do birds need a night?

12hrs

23

How often should birds be fed?

2 times a day

24

What is included in a birds diet?

Vitamins, minerals, energy

25

Where do birds get their energy?

From fat, CHO, and protien

26

Where do birds get their sources of fat?

Oil seeds: sunflower, safflower, peanuts

27

Where do birds get their carbs?

Non oil seeds: millet, canary seed, hulled oats
While grain bread
Monkey biscuits

28

Where do birds get their protiens?

Mature legumes: peas and beans
Hard cooked eggs
Cheese
Yogurt

29

Where so birds get their vitamins and minerals?

Fruits and vegtables

30

What will formulated diets do?

Incorporate all nutrients birds need into a pellet

31

What does a parrots food consist of?

80% pelleted food, 20% dark green and yellow vegies with fruits and seeds as treats

32

What is grit?

Non digestible little rocks and helps break down the food animals eat.

33

What is grit not recommended for?

Psittacines

34

What gland do birds use to groom their feathers?

The uropygial gland

35

What can you do to help improve feather appearance?

Mist/wet feather and clean with dawn

36

So birds have sweat glands?

Nope!

37

Where is the fleshy band around a birds nose called?

Cere

38

What are the five types of feathers?

Remiges, reticles, coverts, pin feathers, plume and semi plume feathers

39

What are contour feathers?

Superficial feathers

40

What are Remiges?

Long feathers on wings

41

How many Remiges are there per wing?

20

42

Which feathers are the flight feathers?

Primary feathers

43

Which feathers are the primary Remiges?

Feathers 10-1 starting at distal end of wing

44

What are reticles?

Long feathers on the tail

45

What are coverts?

Small feathers covering the body

46

What are pin feather?

Growing feathers

47

What are plume and semi plume feathers?

Feathers under other feathers

48

What is the rachis?

Shaft with the barbs

49

What is the calamus?

Shaft without barbs

50

What are barbeols?

Extension of small interlocking extensions from barbs

51

When does molting occur?

At least once a year

52

What can effect birds molting times?

Season, temp, and nutrition

53

How long can molting last?

Can extend over a period of months

54

How much does a birds metabolic rate increase when molting?

30%

55

What is the sternum/keel bone?

Broad attachment point of flight muscles

56

What bones are the wings made of?

Fused carpal metacarpal bones

57

What bones are the legs made of?

Fused tibiotarsal and tarsometatarsal bones

58

Does a bird have a pubic symphysis?

No

59

What bones is the pelvis made of?

Fused lumbar and sacral vertebraesynsacrum

60

Why do birds have air sacs?

It helps them extract oxygen more efficiently by getting oxygen while exhaling also

61

Where are the vocal chords?

Located in syrinx

62

Where is the syrinx?

Found just before celomic cavity

63

What is the crop?

Dials toon of esophagus

64

What are the two parts of a birds stomach?

Proventriculus and ventriculus

65

What is the proventroculus?

Glandular stomach

66

What is the proventroculus?

Gizzard, muscular stomach

67

What is vitamin C?

Absorbing acid

68

Why do birds produce unrates?

To preserve water

69

Describe the birds kidney

Divided into three sections and excretes nitrogenous waste mostly as uric acid crystals

70

What does the female birds reproductive organs include?

Only A left ovary and oviduct

71

What is feather picking?

Chewing and plucking of its own feathers by a bird

72

What are some causes of feather picking?

Preening in courtship or removing from brood patch. Allergies, psychological

73

What can cause allergies in birds to make them start feather pickings?

Fungal or bacterial skin infections, parasites (external/internal) endocrine disease, liver disease, zinc toxicity

74

What is bumble foot or pododermatitis?

Infection and inflammation of the skin on the foot caused by trauma

75

What can cause bumble foot?

Sand paper perches, long toenails, vitamin A deficiency

76

How can you prevent bumble foot?

Non abrasive perches of varying diameter and nutrition

77

How do you treat bumble foot?

Bandaging

78

What is knemidocoptic mange

Caused by scaley leg mites, causes dry scaling and crust formation on face, beak, vent, and legs

79

How do you diagnose knemidocoptic?

Skin scraping

81

How do you treat knemidocoptic?

Insecticidal dusts, ivermectin IM

82

What can cause an overgrown beak?

malocclusion, malnutrition, or systemic disease

83

what can hypocalcemia lead to?

stunted growth, deformed bones, bone fractures, and seizures in African grey parrots

84

what can hypovitaminosis A lead to?

formation of white plaques on skin in and around mouth and eyes. recurrent ocular/respiratory infections

85

what is non-stick cookware toxicosis?

teflon heated pans heated to >540F can cause pulmonary hemmorrage

86

what can cause egg binding?

malnutrition, excessive egg production, malformed eggs, obiesity, lack of exercise, stress

87

what bird disease is zoonotic?

chalmydiosis

88

what causes chlamydiosis?

chlamidophila psittaci

89

what are sighns of chlamydiosis?

anorexia, ruffled feathers, ocular/nasal discharge, diarrhea, can be asymptomatic

90

how is chlamydiosis transmitted?

feather/fecal dust, respiratory secretions. inhaling or ingestion

91

what can treat chlamydiosis?

doxycycline antibiotic treatment

92

what is beak and feather disease?

viral disease that causes deformed feathers, overgrown/deformed beak, immunosuppression

93

what is a distinguishing characteristic of beak and feather disease?

effects all feathers

94

what tests can test for beak and feather disease?

blood abd serology test

95

what can transmit beak and feather disease?

feather/fecal dust

96

what are the signs of egg binding?

anorexia, depression, wide stance, straining, shock, death

97

how do you treat egg binding?

calcium and Vit A and D injections. warm humid enbironment, parenteral fluids, prostoglandin, ovocentesis