Flashcards in Birds Deck (97):
What is the class for birds?
What are the two types of bird orders?
Psittaciformes and passeriformes
What are three other orders?
What are anseroformes?
What are falconiformes?
Falcons and eagles
What are galliformes?
Chickens and turkeys
Where can an IM injection be given in a bird?
In the keel bone, thigh, and pectoral muscles
Where can an SQ be given?
Inguinal and axillary areas
Where can blood be collected?
Medial metatarsal vein, jugular vein, basilic vein, toenail clipping or skin procl
Which jugular vein is bigger?
What is the coelomic cavity?
Only cavity, contains all organs
what is the crop?
Extension of esophagus where food sits for a while
What is bird waste made uf?
Small amounts of urea, mostly uric acid crystals
What is the cloaca?
Space where reproductive tract, GI tract, and UI tract empty into
What are two morphological in psittaciformes?
Hooked maxilla and two digits forward and two back
What birds are considered psittacines?
Budgerigar, parakeet, cockatiel, parrot, lovebird, conure, macaw, cockatoo, and lorie
What are three characteristics of passeriformes?
3 forward digits, 1 hind toe, no hooked maxilla
What birds are included in passiformes
Canary, finch, minaw
What are three important components to a birds natural environment?
Open space for movement and exercise. Sensory stimulation. Access to a variety of foods
What are four components to a cage?
Must be large enough to provide full body extension. Cage material should be strong, non-toxic and easy to clean, metal bar width and spacing should be appropriate, should have pull out tray (daily)
What are four components or bird perches?
Should have variable diameter, made of non-toxic material, one or more necessary, place above cage floor away from food and water bowls
How many toys in a birds cage should be in there at one time?
1-2 and rotate
How much sleep do birds need a night?
How often should birds be fed?
2 times a day
What is included in a birds diet?
Vitamins, minerals, energy
Where do birds get their energy?
From fat, CHO, and protien
Where do birds get their sources of fat?
Oil seeds: sunflower, safflower, peanuts
Where do birds get their carbs?
Non oil seeds: millet, canary seed, hulled oats
While grain bread
Where do birds get their protiens?
Mature legumes: peas and beans
Hard cooked eggs
Where so birds get their vitamins and minerals?
Fruits and vegtables
What will formulated diets do?
Incorporate all nutrients birds need into a pellet
What does a parrots food consist of?
80% pelleted food, 20% dark green and yellow vegies with fruits and seeds as treats
What is grit?
Non digestible little rocks and helps break down the food animals eat.
What is grit not recommended for?
What gland do birds use to groom their feathers?
The uropygial gland
What can you do to help improve feather appearance?
Mist/wet feather and clean with dawn
So birds have sweat glands?
Where is the fleshy band around a birds nose called?
What are the five types of feathers?
Remiges, reticles, coverts, pin feathers, plume and semi plume feathers
What are contour feathers?
What are Remiges?
Long feathers on wings
How many Remiges are there per wing?
Which feathers are the flight feathers?
Which feathers are the primary Remiges?
Feathers 10-1 starting at distal end of wing
What are reticles?
Long feathers on the tail
What are coverts?
Small feathers covering the body
What are pin feather?
What are plume and semi plume feathers?
Feathers under other feathers
What is the rachis?
Shaft with the barbs
What is the calamus?
Shaft without barbs
What are barbeols?
Extension of small interlocking extensions from barbs
When does molting occur?
At least once a year
What can effect birds molting times?
Season, temp, and nutrition
How long can molting last?
Can extend over a period of months
How much does a birds metabolic rate increase when molting?
What is the sternum/keel bone?
Broad attachment point of flight muscles
What bones are the wings made of?
Fused carpal metacarpal bones
What bones are the legs made of?
Fused tibiotarsal and tarsometatarsal bones
Does a bird have a pubic symphysis?
What bones is the pelvis made of?
Fused lumbar and sacral vertebraesynsacrum
Why do birds have air sacs?
It helps them extract oxygen more efficiently by getting oxygen while exhaling also
Where are the vocal chords?
Located in syrinx
Where is the syrinx?
Found just before celomic cavity
What is the crop?
Dials toon of esophagus
What are the two parts of a birds stomach?
Proventriculus and ventriculus
What is the proventroculus?
What is the proventroculus?
Gizzard, muscular stomach
What is vitamin C?
Why do birds produce unrates?
To preserve water
Describe the birds kidney
Divided into three sections and excretes nitrogenous waste mostly as uric acid crystals
What does the female birds reproductive organs include?
Only A left ovary and oviduct
What is feather picking?
Chewing and plucking of its own feathers by a bird
What are some causes of feather picking?
Preening in courtship or removing from brood patch. Allergies, psychological
What can cause allergies in birds to make them start feather pickings?
Fungal or bacterial skin infections, parasites (external/internal) endocrine disease, liver disease, zinc toxicity
What is bumble foot or pododermatitis?
Infection and inflammation of the skin on the foot caused by trauma
What can cause bumble foot?
Sand paper perches, long toenails, vitamin A deficiency
How can you prevent bumble foot?
Non abrasive perches of varying diameter and nutrition
How do you treat bumble foot?
What is knemidocoptic mange
Caused by scaley leg mites, causes dry scaling and crust formation on face, beak, vent, and legs
How do you diagnose knemidocoptic?
How do you treat knemidocoptic?
Insecticidal dusts, ivermectin IM
What can cause an overgrown beak?
malocclusion, malnutrition, or systemic disease
what can hypocalcemia lead to?
stunted growth, deformed bones, bone fractures, and seizures in African grey parrots
what can hypovitaminosis A lead to?
formation of white plaques on skin in and around mouth and eyes. recurrent ocular/respiratory infections
what is non-stick cookware toxicosis?
teflon heated pans heated to >540F can cause pulmonary hemmorrage
what can cause egg binding?
malnutrition, excessive egg production, malformed eggs, obiesity, lack of exercise, stress
what bird disease is zoonotic?
what causes chlamydiosis?
what are sighns of chlamydiosis?
anorexia, ruffled feathers, ocular/nasal discharge, diarrhea, can be asymptomatic
how is chlamydiosis transmitted?
feather/fecal dust, respiratory secretions. inhaling or ingestion
what can treat chlamydiosis?
doxycycline antibiotic treatment
what is beak and feather disease?
viral disease that causes deformed feathers, overgrown/deformed beak, immunosuppression
what is a distinguishing characteristic of beak and feather disease?
effects all feathers
what tests can test for beak and feather disease?
blood abd serology test
what can transmit beak and feather disease?
what are the signs of egg binding?
anorexia, depression, wide stance, straining, shock, death