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Flashcards in Reptiles 2 Deck (50):
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What is metabolic bone disease?

A disease characterized by weakening of skeletal bones

1

What causes metabolic bone disease?

Abnormally low levels of calcium in the body

2

What are three things that can cause low levels of calcium?

Dietary calcium deficiency
Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency
Lack of UV light

3

Explain the process of metabolic bone disease 5

Decreased calcium causes
Secretion of parathyroid hormone that
Causes reabsorption of bone releasing CA
Then death

4

What are 8 symptoms of MBD in growing lizards?

Decreased appetite, weight loss, lameness, lack of trunkal lifting, reluctance to move, swelling of long bones and mandible, deformed bones, bone fractures

5

What are four symptoms of MBD in chelonians?

Malformed soft shell in young, anorexia small shell in adults

6

What are three ways to diagnose MBD?

Clinical signs
Radio graphs
Dietary history

7

What diet can lead to MBD in carnivores?

Organ meat or meat without the bone

8

What diet can lead to MBD in insectivores?

Calcium deficient insects

9

What diet can lead to MBD in herbivores?

Fruits and veggies low on calcium

10

What are six ways to treat MBD?

Cage rest
Correct diet
Splints
Calcium supp
Vit D3 supp
UVB loghting

11

What species does hypovitaminosis A normally affect?

Turtles

12

What can cause hypo A? 2

Poor quality veggies and boneless meat

13

What does HypoA lead to?

Abnormal epithelial cells that thicken and dry lining the ocular, respiratory, GI, and urinary tracts

14

What are five signs of HypoA?

Lethargy
Anorexia
Weightloss
Swollen eyelids
Nasal/ocular discharge

15

What are three ways to doagnose HypoA?

Signs
Diet history
Response to treatment

16

What are 2 ways to treat HypoA?

SQ injection
Foods rich in carotene

17

What is shell rot?

Infection of a turtles ahell

18

What does shell rot look like? 2

Characterized by loss of keratinization epithelium and formation of necrotic tissue pockets

19

What are scutes

Keratinized epithelium

20

What can the progression of shell rot lead to?

Septicemia (septicemic cutaneous ulcerative disease )

21

What is also known as mouth rot?

Infectious stomatitis

22

What is infectious stomatitis ?

Opportunistic bacterial infection of the oral cavity

23

What is infectious stomatitis usually associated with? 3

Stress of over crowding
Low ambient temp
Poor nutrition

24

What are 5 signs of infectious stomatitis?

reddening of gingiva, salivation, greeting if oral mucosa, bleeding, purulent discharge

25

How do you treat mild infectious stomatitis? 2

Increased temp and topical antibiotic

26

How do you treat severe infectious stomatitis?

Systemic abo

27

How do you treat abscesses infectious stomatitis? 3

Drain flush systemic abos

28

What are usually the causes for vomiting and constipation?

Husbandry

29

What are 3 reasons for vomiting?

Low temp
Quick drop in temp
Handling after eating

30

What are 4 reasons for constipation?

Lack of exercise
Ingestion of bedding
To large of meats frequent meals

31

When do abscesses form?

Secondary to skin trauma

32

What are three ways of treatment for abscess formation

Surgical removal, topical treatment, systemic abo

33

What is dysecdysis?

Abnormal shedding of epidermis

34

How long does it take for lizards and turtles to shed their skin?

1-2 weeks

35

What are five causes of dysecdysis?

Handling snake during shedding, low temp, low humidity, poor nutrition, insufficient cage furniture

36

How do you treat dysecdysis

Soak in tepid water

37

What is blister disease?

Formation of fluid filled vesicles in skin

38

What causes blister disease?

Result from high humidity in the cage

39

What kind of reptiles have problems with parasites?

Captive

40

What are four types of parasites that reptiles can harbor?

Nematodes, cestodes, Trematoda, protozoa

41

What are two ways to diagnose endoparasites?

Fecal float, direct fecal smear

42

How do you treat endoparasites?

Oral or injectable dewormers

43

What are two types of ectoparasites?

Ticks and mites

44

What is the snake mite?

Ophionyssus natricis

45

How do you diagnose external parasites?

Visual inspection

46

What are three ways to treat ectoparasites?

Topical, systemic anti parasitic, ivermectin

47

What is salmonellosis?

Bacterial infection with salmonella spp

48

Do reptiles with salmonellosis show signs?

No

49

Why is there a risk of salmonellosis being zoonotic?

Shed in feces