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Flashcards in Blood Deck (11):

Functions of Blood (3)

-Transportation of oxygen & CO2 + nutrients + wastes
-Regulation of body temp, pH & fluid volume
-Protection by mounting an immune response and production of antibodies


Composition of Blood (3)

1. Erythrocytes (44%)
2. Buffy Coat (1%)
3. Plasma (55%)


-variation between females and males

-Hematocrit: the % of the volume of all formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes & Platelets) in one's blood

-Females = 38-46%
-Males = 42-56%




-AKA Red blood cells
-lack nuclei & other organelles
-relatively small (7.5um diameter)
-unique biconcave shape
-As pass through small blood vessels, line up in single file termed rouleaux


Hemoglobin in Erythrocytes

-Every erythrocyte contains 280 million molecules of red pigmented protein called hemoglobin
-is capable of reversibly transporting O & CO2

-consists of 4 globin protein molecules;
-2 x alpha chains
-2 x beta chains


Leukocytes -general features

-Possess nucleus and organelles
-help initiate an immune response & defend body against pathogens
-1.5-3 x larger than erythrocytes
-capable of leaving blood vessels and entering a tissue (diapedesis)
-are attracted to site of infection - called chemotaxis


Types of Leukocytes (5)



Types & functions of Leukocytes

-Neutrophils: Multi-lobed nuclei; phagocytize pathogens & release enzymes that target pathogens
-Eosinophils: Bilobed nuclei; phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes and allergens
-Basophil: Bilobed many granules. Release histamine (vasodilator) and heparin (anticoagulant) during reactions
-Lymphocyte: round nucleus; attacks pathogens & abnormal/infected cells. Coordinate immune cell activity and produce antigens
-Monocyte: Kidney shaped nucleus, can exit blood vessels and become macrophages. Phagocytize pathogens, cellular debris, dead cells


Granulocytes & agranulocytes - leukocyte classification

-Leukocytes divided into 2 classes; based on presence of absence of visible organelles (termed granules)
Granulocytes: Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Agranulocytes: Lymphocyte & Monocyte


-What they are
-what they are derived from
-Involved in

-irregular membrane enclosed cellular fragments
-represent shed cytoplasm from cells in red bone marrow called megakaryocytes
-are approx. 15 x larger than erythrocytes
-platelets are about 1/4 size of erythrocytes
*Involved in the clotting of blood



-Is the process of erythrocyte production
-about 3 million erythrocytes produced per second
-during maturation, all organelles w/in erythrocyte degenerate leaving it with nothing more than a bag of hemoglobin