Muscles - from Lab Flashcards Preview

BMS101 > Muscles - from Lab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscles - from Lab Deck (31):
1

4 main muscle fiber patterns - features, examples

1. Circular: Fibres arranged concentrically around an opening - functions as sphincter to close passageway or opening -e.g. orbicularis oris 2. Parallel: Fascicles parallel to long axis of muscle - body of muscle increases in diameter w/ contraction. -high endurance, not very strong -e.g. rectus abdominis 3. Convergent: Triangular muscles w/ common attachment site - direction of pull can be changed Does not pull as hard as equal-sized muscle. -e.g. pectoralis major 4. Pennate (uni-, bi-, multi-): muscle body has 1 or more tendons, fasciles at oblique angle to tendon, pulls harder than a parallel muscle of equal size. unipennate: all muscle fibres same side (extensor digitorum) bipennate: muscle fibres on both sides (Rectus femoris) multipennate: tendon branches w/ muscle (Deltoid)

2

Muscle terminology;- Brevis Capitis Endo- epi- gastro- inter- magnus oblique peri- rectus

Brevis - short Capitis - head Endo- - within epi- - upon gastro- -stomach inter- -between magnus -large oblique -at an angle peri- -around rectus -straight

3

Define; - -Origin -Insertion

Origin: The less mobile attachment of a muscle that doesn't move as much during contraction Insertion: The more mobile attachment of a muscle that moves during contraction (comes closer to the origin when muscle contracts)

4

What does triceps brachii move?

-Extends forearm

5

What does biceps branchii move?

Flexes elbow joint

6

What does pectoralis major move?

Glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint)

7

What does Latissimus dorsi move?

Abduction of arm/arm extension

8

What does gluteus maximus move?

Extension of hip

9

What does biceps femoris move?

Flexion of knee

10

Muscle functions;- Flexors Extensors Abductors Adductors Rotators

Flexors - muscles that bend the limb Extensors - muscles that straighten the limb Abductors - Muscles that move the limb away from the midline Adductors - muscles that move the limb towards the midline Rotators - muscles that rotate a bone around its own long axis

11

Muscles involved in flexing the elbow joint (3)

-Biceps branchii -Brachialis -Brachioradialis (insertion near humerous)

12

Muscle that extends the fingers to open the hand

-Extensor digitorum

13

Muscles that make up quadriceps (4)

-Vastus lateralis -Rectus femoris (crosses hip and knee joint) -Vastus medialis -sartorius

14

Muscles that make up hamstring (3)

-Semimembranosus -Semitendinosus -Biceps femoris (has 2 heads/muscle bellies)

15

Muscles that make up "calf muscle" (2) -Tendon both insert

-gastrocnemius -soleus *both insert into calcaneous tendon (AKA achilles)

16

4 main muscles of mastication

-Masseter -temporalis -Pterygoids (medial and lateral) -Buccinator

17

3 muscles of facial expression

-orbicularis oris -obricularis oculi -mentalis

18

3 muscles of facial expression

-orbicularis oris (kissing) -obricularis oculi (blinking & squinting) -mentalis

19

Muscles involved in inhalation (1) & exhalation (2) -role of scalene muscles

Inhalation: External intercostal (elevate ribs) Exhalation: Internal intercostal mucles (depress ribs) & Transvrsus thoracis (depresses ribs) -Scalene muscles allows more air in during forced inspiration (i.e. during exercise)

20

Diaphragm movement during inhalation and exhalation

Inhalation: Diaphragm moves inferiorly during contraction Exhalation: Diaphragm moves superiorly as it relaxes

21

Muscles involved in jaw closure

Masseter & Temporalis  - also slightly the medial pterygoid (elevates mandible)

22

Muscls involved in side-to-side grinding of mandible

Medial & lateral pterygoid

23

Muscles of arm;-

-triceps branchii

-biceps branchii

-branchialis

-brancioradialis

-extensor digitorum

24

More muscles of the arm;-

-flexor carpi radius

-palmaris longus

-flexor carpi ulnaris

 

25

Muscles of lower leg;-

-Soleus

-gastrocnemius

-calcaneus

-calcaneal tendon

-tibialis anterior

26

Muscles of the upper leg;-

-Gracilis

-sartorius

-vastus lateralis & medialis

-rectus femoris

-biceps femoris

-semitendinosus

-semimembranosus

-gluteus maximus

-adductor magnus

27

Muscles of the back/shoulder;-

-Trapezius

-deltoid

-latissimus dorsi

-infraspinatus

-tres major

28

Muscles of abdominal cavity;-

-rectus abdominis

-transverse abdominis

-internal obliques

-external obliques

29

Actions of muscles;-

-Gluteus minimus

-gluteus maximus

-Biceps femoris

-Gluteus minimus: hip abductor - internal roation of hip

-Gluteus maximus: hip extension & external rotation of hip

-Biceps femoris: Flexion of knee, hip extension, lateral rotation of hip when knee flexed

30

Actions of muscles;-

-Biceps brachii

-triceps brachii

-deltoid (3)

-Biceps brachii: flexion of elbow

-Triceps brachii: Extension of elbow

-Deltoid: anterior portion: shoulder flextion & external roation

-Posterior portion: shoulder extension & external roation

-all fibres: shoulder abduction

31

Actions of muscles;- 

-Pectorialis major

-Adductor longus

-Rectus femoris

-Gastrocnemius

-Pectorialis major: Shoulder flexion, internal rotation, adduction

-adductor longus: hip adduction, hip flexion

-Rectus femoris: Flexion of hip, extension of knee

-gastrocnemius: plantar flexion