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Flashcards in Lab 9 Deck (19):

Primary Function of;-


Heart: To pump blood around the body, supplying nutrients and oxygen to tissues and cells and also removing CO2 and wastes in the process

Lungs: To transfer inhaled O2 to the bloodstream and enabling the removal of CO2 from the bloodstream

Muscles: To allow movement; whether internally, skeletally or otherwise

Stomach: To break down and digest food so that nutrients can be released and then absorbed


Primary Function of;

Intestinal Tract

Intestinal Tract: To further absorb nutrients/water from ingested material (in the form of chyme)

Liver: To produce bile and excrete it. It is also involved in the detoxification of chemicals and the metabolism of drugs

Kidneys: To remove waste products from the blood and regulate fluid levels

Ovaries/Testes: To produce gametes that are essential in sexual reproduction. Also produces necessary hormones


Primary Function of-


Brain: To integrate information fro all other systems/organs and to ensure proper bodily functions occur. Also responsible for providing conscious thought and higher level processes

Skeleton: To provide protection and a framework for the other organs. It is also involved in blood cell production and calcium storage


Krause Bulb

-type of tactile receptor

*Encapsulated receptor
Location: Mucous membranes of oral and nasal cavity and vaginal and anal canal.
Function: Detect light pressure and low frequency vibration


Lamellated corpuscle

-type of tactile receptor

*Encapsulated receptor
Location: Dermis, subcutaneous tissue, synovial membranes and some viscera
Function: Detect deep pressure and high frequency vibration


Ruffini Corpuscle

-type of tactile receptor

*Encapsulated receptor
Location: Dermis & subcutaneous layer
Function: Detect continuous deep pressure and skin distortion


Tactile corpuscle

-type of tactile receptor

*Encapsulated receptor
Location: Dermal papillae (esp. lips, palms, eyelids, nipples & genitals)
Function: Detect fine, light touch and texture


Free Nerve Ending

-type of tactile receptor

*Unencapsulated Receptor
Location: Widespread in deep epidermis and papillary layer of the dermis
Function: Detect pressure, change in temperature, pain, touch


Root hair plexus

-type of tactile receptor

*Unencapsulated Receptor
Location: Surrounds hair follicles in the reticular layer of the dermis
Function: Detect movement of the hair


Tactile Disc

-type of tactile receptor

*unencapsulated receptor
-Location: Stratum basale of epidermis
Function: Detect light touch, textures, and shapes


Heart Sounds

-Lub Dub

Systolic and Diastolic in terms of lub dub

"lub dub"
Lub = 1st heart sound
-tricuspid and bicuspid valves shut shut together
-as they snap shut, pulmonary and aortic valves open
Dub=2nd sound
-pulmonary and aortic valves snap shut whilst tricuspid and bicuspid open

Systolic = sound (contraction)
Diastolic = pause (between S2 and S1) - is when the heart fills up w/ blood


Where to take a pulse (6) (Arm)

1. Axillary pulse (underarm)
2. Brachial pulse in mid arm(inside of arm - bicep)
3. Brachial pulse in cubital fossal (in inside of elbow)
4. Radial pulse in distal forearm
5. Ulnar pulse in distal forearm
6. Radial pulse in the anatomical snuffbox (space between hand and protrusion of radius)


Facial pulse (4)

1. Temporal pulse 1 (close to ear)
2. Temporal pulse 2 (actually on temple)
3. Carotid pulse (one of strongest in body - in the anterior triangle of the neck)
4. Facial pulse: where the facial artery crosses the inferior border of the mandible, immediately adjacent to the anterior margin of the masseter muscle)


Blood pressure

-normal blood pressure

-pathological hypertension

-what it is was typically take with

Normal: systolic = 120mmHg (just after heart has finished contracting)
diastolic = 80mmHg (when the heart is relaxed and just before it pumps again)

Pathological hypertension: continually high blood pressure brought on by diseases such as narrowed arteries

-Typically taken with sphygmomanometer and stethoscope


Layers of the eye wall (3)

1. Fibrous tunic (composed of sclera & cornea)
2. Vascular tunic (comprised of iris, ciliary body & choroid)
3. Retina (comprised of Pigmented layer & neural layer)


Fibrous tunic - 2 regions

1. Cornea: Transparent, avascular; receives oxygen and nutrients from lacrimal fluid and aqueous humor
2. Sclera: Makes up majority of fibrous tunic; considered the 'White" of they eye
-allows attachment of extrinsic eye muscles to the eye


Vascular Tunic (3 Regions)

1. Choroid: largest area, contains vast network of capillaries which supply nutrients and oxygen to retina)
2. Ciliary Body: composed of ciliary muscles and ciliary processes
-suspensory ligaments extend from ciliary body and attach to the lens
-control shape of lens
3. Iris: Pigmented part of anterior eye - inner margin of iris defines black hole called pupil (allows light to pass on to regina)
-2 muscles that determine diameter of pupil (sphincter pupillae muscles = contraction -> constriction; Dilator pupillae muscles: causes dilation)


Retina - 2 layers

1. Pigmented layer: attached to choroid; absorbes light energy that passes through the retina and provides photoreceptors w/ vitamin A
2. Neural layer: Houses photoreceptors and other associated neurons


Rods & Cones

Blind spot

Rods: involved in peripheral/night vision (NO COLOUR)
Cones: bright light -> detect colour
-also help us focus on images
-concentrated in fovea centralis (sharpest area of vision)

Blind spot: formed by optic disc - where ganglion cell axons exit retina to form optic nerve & renal arteries and veins enter and exit retina
-lacks rods and cones