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Flashcards in Reproductive system Deck (38):

Determination of Sex (2)

Most vertebrates have two genders;
-Genetically-determined (mammals Xy = males; XX = females)
-Environmentally determined (such as in reptiles & amphibians)



-gonads (what called in males & females)
-function of ducts

-Gonads: Primary sex organs (also produce lots of sex hormones)
-ovaries in females
-testes in male
-Gametes: sex cells produced by gonads
-oocytes =female
-sperm = male
-Functions of ducts: to transport gametes to site of fertilisation


Reproductive System Homologue

-Labia majora
-Vestibular glands

- Ovaries & Testes: produce games and sex hormones
-Clitoris & glans of penis: contain autonomic nervous system that stimulate feelings of arousal and sexual climax
-Labia majora & scrotum: protect and cover some reporductive structures
-vestibular glands & bulbourethral glands: screte mucin for lubrication


Functions of female reproductive organs (5)

-Produce ovum
-Facilitate transport of sperm to site of fertilisation
-provide sanctuary and nourishment for developing embryo
-Provide passage for birth
-Provide nourishment for young


Female reproductive organs:

-accessory organs (5)

-Primary organs: Ovaries
-Accessory organs;-
-Uterine tubes
-Mammary glands



-How anchored to pelvic cavity

-Are paired, oval organs, slightly larger than an almond

-Anchored within pelvic cavity by;
broad ligament
ovarian ligament
suspensory ligament


Structure of Ovary

-Surrounded by connective tissue capsule called tunica albuginea
-Divided to outer cortex & inner medulla
-cortex contains ovarian follicles
-medullar contains CT, blood vessels, lymph vessels & nerves


Ovarian follicles

-Thousands of ovarian follicles in cortex of ovary
-Consist of an oocyte surrounded by follicle cells
-Several types of ovarian follicles, each representing different stage of development


Stages of Ovarian follicle maturation

1. Primordial follicle
2. Primary follicle
3. Secondary follicle
4. Mature follicle

*When mature follicle ruptures and expels its oocyte, the remnants in ovary turn yellowish structure = Corpus tuteam -secretes sex hormones


Uterine Tube (4 continuous regions)

1. Infundibulum: lateral opening of tube encircled by fingerlike projections
2. Ampulla: expanded region medial to infundibulum where fertilisation typically occurs
3. Isthmus: just medial to ampulla - approx. 1/3 of entire length
4. Uterine part: continuous w/ uterus


3 layers of the walls of the uterine tubes

1. Mucosa: Ciliated columnar epithelial cells
2. Muscularis: inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
3. Serosa: external serous membrane covering uterine tube


Ectopic implantation

-Where egg embeds in an abnormal site



-anteverted and retroverted

-pear shaped, thick-walled muscular organ w/in pelvic cavity
-Has lumen that is continuous w/ uterine tubes
-angled anterosuperiorly across superior surface of urinary bladder (ANTEVERTED)
-is positioned projecting towards rectum = retroverted


Functions of uterus

1. Site of implantation
2. Supports and protects developing embryo/fetus
3. Ejects fetus during labour


4 regions of uterus

-Muscular wall, external serous membrane & internal vascular epithelium

1. Fundus (upper part)
2. Body
3. Isthmus
4. Cervix

Muscular wall = myometrium
-external serous membrane
-internal vascular epithelium


Blood supply to uterus

-Uterine arteries: branches from internal iliac arteries that supply the uterus


Vagina - features

-vulva - 2 types

-Vestible - what it houses

-A fibromuscular tube approx. 10cm in length
-connects uterus to outside of body
-Vaginal orifice: Opening of vagina
Vulva: External genitalia
-labia majora: paired, thickened folds of skin, covered w/ hair, possessing sebaceous and sweat glands
-labia minora: paired folds medial to labia majora, devoid of hair, highly vascularised w/ numerous melanocytes

Vestible: space between labia minora
-houses urethral opening and vaginal opening


Mammary Glands -what they are


aka breast
-Composed of tubulaoalveolar exocrine gland
-secretory product (aka milk) contains proteins, fats and sugar
-subdivided into lobes, further divided into lobules
-lobules contain secretory units called aveoli (what produces milk)


What determines maleness?

-SIngle gene (SRY) on Y chromosome changes pattern of dvelopment in fetal gonad to that of a testis

-absence leads to XY female phenotype


Androgen insensitivity syndrom

-tissues of reproductive organ system not responding, female characteristics develop, although male genetically
-usually not diagnosed until puberty


Organs of male reproductive system


Primary: testes
Accessory organs: ducts and tubles, penis




-skin covered sac - provides testes w/ cooler environ (optimum temp is 3 degrees lower than body temp)
-dartos muscle layer of smooth muscle that is part of wall of scrotum - brings testes closer in cold, lowers them when hot


Spermatic cord
-where originates
-Components (4)

-Originates at inguinal canal
-enclosed w/in pocket of periotenium
Consists of;-
-Testicular artery (branch off the abdominal aorta
-Pampiniform plexus (network of veins surrounding testicular atery)
-Cremaster muscle & fascia: formed from muscle fiber extensions of internal oblique muscle
-Autonomic nerves: travel w/ plexus and connect to testes (involved in regulation)


Functions of Testes (2)

1. Produce sperm
2. Hormone production



-Ovoid in structure, approx. 4 cm long
-Tunica albuginea projects internally into the testes to form septa
-septa subdivide to form about 250 lobules
-each lobule contains four convoluted seminiferous tubules (in each)


Seminiferous Tubules - 2 types of cells

-Conatin 2 types of cells;
1. Sustentacular cells: nondividing support cells that assist w/ sperm development; connected to each other by tight junctions and form blood-testis barrier (so blood doesnt come in direct contact w/ sperm)
2. Population of dividing germ cells that continuously produce sperm - begins at puberty


Spermatogenesis & Spermiogenesis

-Most of maturation of sperm occurs in epididimus
-get rid of anything they don't need
-Midpiece contains lots of mitochondria (as well as centriole)
-Tail forms from microtubules
-acrosome cap - contains digestive enzymes that are needed for fertilisation


Ducts in Male reproductive system (6)

-Rete testis
-Efferent ductules
-Ductus deferens
-Ejaculatory duct



-3 parts

-Situated on the posterosuperior surface of the testes
3 regions;
1. Head
2. Body
3. Tail
Internally, contains long convoluted duct of epidiymis - stores sperm and serves in the maturation process of sperm


Ductus Deferens

-Sperm leaving epidiymis enter the ductus deferens (vas deferens)
-Tube travels w/in spermatic cord and enters pelvic cavity through inguinal canal



-Transports semen from both ejaculatory ducts to the outside of body
-transports urine from bladder to outside of body
3 portions:
1. Prostatic urethra
2. Membranous urethra
3. Spongy urethra


Accessory Glands -3 glands

-what 3 glands do

-Three glands that secrete fluids to mix w/ sperm to create seminal fluid
-nourish sperm & help neutralize acidity of vagina
3 glands:
1. Seminal vesicles: nourishment
2. Prostate gland: produces nourishment & mucous
3. Bulbourethral glands: secretions before ejaculation to clean out urethra


Seminal vesicles - what it secretes

Prostrate secretion

Bulbourethral glands

Seminal vesicles: secrete viscous, whitish-yellow, alkaline fluid containing fructose (ENERGY) and prostaglandis (TYPE OF HORMONE - stimulates cervix to relax)
-prostrate secretion: slightly acidic & contains mucin, citric acid and antibacterial agents
-Bulbourethral glands: secrete mucin into spongy urethra at base of penis - flushes before ejaculation


Semen - what is it

-Seminal fluid from 3 accessory glands combines w/ sperm to make up semen
-when released during ejaculation = ejaculate
-usu. 3-5ml, contains 200-500 million sperm



-Penis & scrotum form external genitalia in males
-Internally, attached portion = root of penis
-Body (shaft) is elongated portion
-Tip of penis = glans (slightly bulbous in shape) - surrounds external urethral orifice

-Lots of spaces w/in spongy tissue to allow structure to become rigid



-Penis & scrotum form external genitalia in males
-Internally, attached portion = root of penis
-Body (shaft) is elongated portion
-Tip of penis = glans (slightly bulbous in shape) - surrounds external urethral orifice

-Lots of spaces w/in spongy tissue to allow structure to become rigid


Erectile bodies w/in penis (3)

-Are parallel, cylindrical erectile bodies;
1. Paired Copora cavernosa - located dorsolaterally & terminate at distal shaft of penis
2. Single copus spongiosum: inferior and midline that surrounds spongy urethra
3. Distal end of corpus spongiosum continues w/in glans


Erection and Ejaculation

-Erectile bodies composed of venous spaces - fill w/ blood from a central artery to produce an erection
-Parasympathetic nervation responsible for penile erection
-Ejaculation: expelling of semen from the penis by rhythmic contraction of the smooth muscle of the urethra (causes ejaculation - also from pelvic muscles)
-Sympathetic innervation promotes ejaculation