Lifestyle Disorders; Circulatory Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lifestyle Disorders; Circulatory Diseases Deck (25):

Circulatory System: definition

-features of it
-what it transports to and from cells

Circulatory System: a fluid-filled network of tubes (or vessels) through which materials move between the environment and the cells of a multicellular animal
-connects all parts of an organism
-is a closed system
*Transports Oxygen and glucose needed by the cell and removes wastes (carbon dioxide and urea)


Major components of circulatory system

-Pump (heart) -> continously circulates blood
-Network of tubes (arteries and veins)
-Blood -> fluid that fills circulatory system


Renal vein and artery

Mesenteric veins

*what they connect to

-Renal: connects to kidneys

-Mesenteric: connects to intestine


Accessory organs of circulatory system

-Lungs: where O is taken up and CO2 released
-Kidneys: where wastes removed from blood; critical in regulating fluids in body
-Small intestines; digestion
-Large intestine; water absorption


What is blood pressure?

-force of blood against wall of arteries
-systolic: as heart beats
-Diastolic: as heart relaxes

*if blood pressure over 135 over 85, have hypertension


Hypertension - two classifications

-Essential hypertension: no specific medical cause can be found to explain a patient's condition (approx 95%)
-Secondary hypertension: high blood pressure is a result of another condition (such as kidney disease or tumours)


What is considered as high blood pressure?

-signs and symptoms

-what it increases chance of

-what it can result in

-consistent blood pressure of 140/90 or higher
-has few warning signs or symptoms (only routine checking can tell)
-it increases chance for heart disease, kidney disease, eye problems and for having a stroke
-can ultimately result in cardiovascular disease (includes variety of heart disease, stroke and related vascular diseases)
-CVD is one of major lifestyle diseases


HBP effect on Arteries

-Causes arteries to harden
-in turn causes the kidneys and heart to work harder

*this contributes to a number of problems


HBP effect on the brain

-Is most important risk factor for stroke
-can cause a break in a weakened blood vessel which then bleeds in the brain


HBP effect on the kidneys

-Kidneys act as filters to rid body of wastes
-HBP can narrow and thicken blood vessels
-wastes build up in blood which can result in kidney damage

*HBP reduces the effectiveness of kidneys


HBP on the eyes

-can eventually cause blood vessels to break and bleed into the eye
-may result in blurred vision or even blindness


Who can develop HBP

-Anyone, but more common in;
-Australian aboriginals/African Americans (they get it earlier and more often)
-slightly more prevalent in older men than women
-overweight people & those with a family history


What causes HBP?? (6)

-narrowing of arteries
-greater than normal volume of blood (due to dietary factors such as sodium)
-Heart beating faster or more forcefully than it should (through drugs)
-Another medical problem (obesity, sleep apnea, tumors, pregnancy)
-Extrinsic factors (age, sex, weight, race, mood, posture and physical activity)
-Lifestyle (i.e. smoking, alcohol, stress)


Role of stress in HBP

-Types of stress include workload, mental stress and socio-economic position


Preventing Hypertension

Adopting a healthy lifestyle by;
-Following a healthy eating pattern
-maintaining a healthy weight
-being physically active
-limiting alcohol
-quit smoking
-decreasing salt intake


Tips for having BP taken

-Don't drink coffee/smoke 30 mins before
-have test late morning or afternoon (bp highest in morning)
-sit 5 mins before test
-go to bathroom before test (full bladder can affect results)
-get 2 readings taken


Other treatments from HBP

-Diurtics (work on kidney to remove excess water)
-Beta blockers (reduce impulses to the heart and blood vessels)
-nervous system inhibitors (slow nerve impulse to heart)
-ace inhibitors (cause blood vessels to relax and blood to flow freely)



-what is it

-is a progressive degenerative disease that lead to occulsion (gradual narrowing) of arteries due to fatty material build up, fibrious or atherosclerotic plaque and calcium deposition and scarring


Mild plaque formation

-what it is

-lipids accumulate
-attract macrophages, that in turn attract smooth muscle cells
-smooth muscle cells divide and enlarge to form "atheroma"


Stable plaque formation

-Plaque bulges into vessel lumen
-invasion of damaged area by fibroblasts forming scar tissue over the plaque
-further complicated by endothelial cell damage


Advanced stages of Atherosclerosis

-Calcium deposits w/in plaque (associated with hardening of arteries)
-exposed endothelium and collagen causes platelets to stick and clots to form = thrombus
-complete occlusion of evessel can occur and lead to heart attack or stroke


Complications of artherosclerosis (3)

1. Thrombo-emboli formation: "sticking of BC to exposed/damaged cell wall - can enlarge untils occludes vessel or can dislodge which can travel and occludes a smaller vessel
2. Angina pectoris: severe chest pain - tissue eventually dies due to decreased blood supply
3. Myocardial infection: "heart attack" can be mild to severe


Outcomes of Heart attack

-management goals (3)

-1/3 = death
-majority of these occur before patient reaches hospital
-4% of those that survive die within first year
-pain = most common persisting complaint
-often accompanied by nausea, vomitting, anxiety and loss of consciousness
Management goals = pain control, administration of aspirin (thickens blood vessel walls) and early identification of patients who are candidates


Who's at risk of heart attack

-Genetic predisposition
-Lack of exercise
-Excess cholestrol levels in the blood



-Are good and bad cholesterol
*not water soluble - carried by lip-proteins
-Bad; low density lipoproteins
-less protein more lipid (cholesterol transported into the cell)
-Good: high density lipoproteins
-more protein less lipid
-cholesterol taken out of cell